BACKGROUND Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder, which is caused by the mutations in SLC12A3. This study was designed to analyze the characteristics of the genotype and phenotype, and follow-up in the largest group of Chinese patients with GS. METHODS Sixty-seven patients with GS underwent SLCl2A3 analysis, and their clinical characteristics and biochemical findings as well as follow-up were reviewed, aiming to achieve a better description of GS. Additionally, the association of genotype and phenotype was explored. RESULTS Forty-one different mutations were identified within these 67 GS patients, including 11 novel mutations and 5 recurrent ones. Typical hypocalciuria and hypomagnesemia were not found in 6 (9%) and 8 (11.9%) patients, respectively. Male patients and those harboring severe mutations in both alleles had significant higher urinary fractional excretion (FE) of potassium, magnesium and chlorine. In addition, there were 2 patients who had chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) and 32 patients with abnormal glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS We identified 41 mutations related to GS, containing 11 novel variants and 5 high-frequency ones, which should facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis of GS. FE of electrolytes in urine may be more sensitive in the phenotype evaluation and differential diagnosis than corresponding serum electrolytes. Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia in GS were difficult to correct; however, spironolactone might be helpful for hypokalemia to some degree. Compared with normal people, patients with GS were at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.