Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) is used in dental restorative materials in its polymeric form. However, the process of polymerization is usually incomplete and the monomers of UDMA can diffuse into the oral cavity and the pulp, reaching millimolar concentrations. In the present work we showed that UDMA at 0.1 and 1.0 mM decreased the viability of and induced DNA damage in lymphocytes in a concentration dependent manner, but it did not affect a plasmid DNA in vitro. UDMA at 1mM induced apoptosis in lymphocytes. The lymphocytes exposed to UDMA were able to repair their DNA within 60 min. Analysis with DNA repair enzymes Endo III and Fpg showed that UDMA induced mainly oxidative DNA lesions. Vitamin C and chitosan decreased genotoxic effect of UDMA. Our results show that monomers of UDMA may exert pronounced cyto- and genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes and chitosan can be considered as a protection against such effects.