The latest advances in molecular medicine, medical genetics and neurobiology have provided for a new look at processes occurring in cells of the brain and have allowed to discover previously unknown phenomena associated with mental traits and to propose new biomedical direction which include genomics, psychiatry and neurobiology - brain genomics. The application of modern molecular and cellular technologies of genome analysis in the brain in common psychiatric disorders (autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease) has shown that genomic instability is a phathogenetic mechanism of central nervous system abnormalities and plays a role in the brain development. Genomic disbalance alters neural homeostasis leads to cell death and is an important biological marker of psychiatric disorders which determine genomic pathways. These alterations lead to synaptic disfunction and neurodegeneration. In the present review, the main advances of brain genomics and potential application in diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic practice.