Genomic epidemiology of the Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreaks in Europe, 2011.

@article{Grad2012GenomicEO,
  title={Genomic epidemiology of the Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreaks in Europe, 2011.},
  author={Yonatan H. Grad and Marc Lipsitch and Michael Feldgarden and Harindra M. Arachchi and Gustavo C. Cerqueira and Michael Fitzgerald and Paul C. Godfrey and Brian J. Haas and Cheryl Isaac Murphy and Carsten Russ and Sean Sykes and Bruce J. Walker and Jennifer R. Wortman and Sarah Young and Qiandong Zeng and Amr Abouelleil and James Bochicchio and Sara N Chauvin and Timothy Desmet and Sharvari Gujja and Caryn McCowan and Anna Montmayeur and Scott Steelman and Jakob Frimodt-M\oller and Andreas Munk Petersen and Carsten Struve and Karen Angeliki Krogfelt and Edouard Bingen and François-Xavier Weill and Eric S. Lander and Chad Nusbaum and Bruce W. Birren and Deborah T Hung and William P. Hanage},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2012},
  volume={109 8},
  pages={3065-70}
}
The degree to which molecular epidemiology reveals information about the sources and transmission patterns of an outbreak depends on the resolution of the technology used and the samples studied. Isolates of Escherichia coli O104:H4 from the outbreak centered in Germany in May-July 2011, and the much smaller outbreak in southwest France in June 2011, were indistinguishable by standard tests. We report a molecular epidemiological analysis using multiplatform whole-genome sequencing and analysis… CONTINUE READING

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Isolates from the German outbreak showed remarkably little diversity , with only two single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ) found in isolates from four individuals .
Isolates from the German outbreak showed remarkably little diversity , with only two single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ) found in isolates from four individuals .
Isolates from the German outbreak showed remarkably little diversity , with only two single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs ) found in isolates from four individuals .
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