Salt is the major factor limiting crop productivity in saline soils and is controlled by various genes. The development of salt-tolerant rice through molecular breeding methods is important to meet the needs of rice breeding. We used 295 accessions to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of salt tolerance-related phenotypes in rice at the seedling stage and obtained 93 candidate genes with high association peaks across six phenotypes. We constructed a protein interaction network using the candidate genes identified here, and 33 genes were associated. Based on the expression patterns, we found that most of these genes showed a different expression level under control and salt stress conditions. In addition, haplotype network and sequence analysis of one ‘key’ gene, a transcription factor (Os12g0176700) encoding a SWIRM domain-containing protein, in the interaction network was investigated to explore its possible role in the network. Our study revealed candidate salt tolerance-related genes in rice at the seedling stage, and demonstrated the feasibility of using GWAS to identify genetic architecture underlying salt tolerance. The data generated here may provide resources for molecular breeding and functional analysis of salt tolerance in rice seedlings.