Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution.


The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.

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@article{Gibbs2004GenomeSO, title={Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution.}, author={Richard A. Gibbs and George M. Weinstock and M. L. Metzker and Donna M. Muzny and Erica Sodergren and Steven E. Scherer and Graham W Scott and David Steffen and Kim Worley and Paula E Burch and Geoffrey O. Okwuonu and Sandra H. Hines and Lora R. Lewis and Christine DeRamo and Oliver Delgado and Shannon P. Dugan-Rocha and George R Miner and Margaret B. Morgan and Alicia C. Hawes and Rachel Gill and Celera and Robert A. Holt and Mark D. Adams and Peter G Amanatides and Holly Baden-Tillson and Mary Barnstead and Soo H Chin and Cheryl A Evans and Steve Ferriera and Carl R Fosler and Anna Glodek and Zhiping Gu and Don Jennings and Cheryl L Kraft and Trixie Nguyen and Cynthia M Pfannkoch and Cynthia D Sitter and Granger G. Sutton and J. Craig Venter and Trevor Woodage and Douglas R. Smith and Hong-Mei Lee and Erik A Gustafson and Patrick T. Cahill and Arnold Kana and Lynn Doucette-Stamm and Keith G Weinstock and Kim Fechtel and Robert Weiss and Diane Marie Dunn and Eric D. Green and Robert W. Blakesley and Gerard G. Bouffard and Pieter J de Jong and Kazutoyo Osoegawa and Baoli Zhu and Marco A. Marra and Jacqueline E. Schein and Ian E Bosdet and Chris Fjell and Steven Jones and Martin Krzywinski and Carrie A Mathewson and Asim S. Siddiqui and Natasja H Wye and John McPherson and Shaying Zhao and Claire M. Fraser and Jyoti U Shetty and Sofiya Shatsman and Keita Geer and Yixin Chen and Sofyia Abramzon and William C. Nierman and Paul Havlak and Rui Chen and Kevin J. Durbin and Amy Egan and Yanru Ren and Xing-zhi Song and Bingshan Li and Yue Liu and Xiang Qin and Simon Cawley and Austin John Cooney and Lisa M. D'Souza and Kirt Martin and Jian Qian Wu and M L Gonzalez-Garay and Andrew R. Jackson and Kenneth J Kalafus and Michael P. McLeod and Aleksandar Milosavljevic and Davinder Virk and Andrei Volkov and David A. Wheeler and Zhengdong Zhang and Jeffrey A. Bailey and Evan E. Eichler and Eray Tuzun and Ewan Birney and Emmanuel Mongin and Abel Ureta-Vidal and Cara Woodwark and Evgeny M. Zdobnov and Peer Bork and Mikita Suyama and David Torrents and Marina Alexandersson and Barbara J. Trask and Janet M Young and Hui Huang and Huajun Wang and Heming Xing and Sue Daniels and Darryl Gietzen and Jeanette Schmidt and Kristian Stevens and Ursula Vitt and Jim Wingrove and Francisco Camara and M. Mar Alb{\`a} and Josep F. Abril and Roderic Guig{\'o} and Arian Smit and Inna Dubchak and Edward M. Rubin and Olivier Couronne and Alexander Poliakov and Norbert H{\"{u}bner and Detlev Ganten and Claudia Goesele and Oliver Hummel and Thomas Kreitler and Young-Ae Lee and Jan Monti and Herbert Schulz and Heike Zimdahl and Heinz Himmelbauer and Hans Lehrach and Howard J. Jacob and Susan Bromberg and Jo Gullings-Handley and Michael Ignatius Jensen-Seaman and Anne E. Kwitek and Jozef Lazar and Dean Pasko and Peter J. Tonellato and Simon N. Twigger and Chris P. Ponting and Jose M. Duarte and S. Rice and Leo Goodstadt and Scott A. Beatson and Richard D Emes and Eitan E Winter and Caleb Webber and Petra Brandt and Gerald J Nyakatura and Margaret Adetobi and Francesca Chiaromonte and Laura Elnitski and Pallavi Eswara and Ross C. Hardison and Minmei Hou and Diana L. Kolbe and Kateryna D. Makova and Webb Miller and Anton Nekrutenko and Cathy Riemer and Scott Schwartz and James Taylor and Shan Yang and Yi Zhang and Klaus Lindpaintner and Thomas D. Andrews and Mario C{\'a}ccamo and Michele E. Clamp and Laura Clarke and Valerie Curwen and Richard Durbin and Eduardo Eyras and Stephen M. J. Searle and Gregory M. Cooper and Serafim Batzoglou and Michael Brudno and Arend Sidow and Eric A. Stone and Bret A. Payseur and Guillaume Bourque and Carlos L{\'o}pez-Ot{\'i}n and Xose S. Puente and K. K. Chakrabarti and Sourav Chatterji and Colin N. Dewey and Lior Pachter and Nicolas L Bray and Von Bing Yap and Anat Caspi and Glenn Tesler and Pavel A. Pevzner and David Haussler and Krishna M. Roskin and Robert Baertsch and Hiram Clawson and Terrence S. Furey and Angie S. Hinrichs and Donna Karolchik and W. James Kent and Kate R. Rosenbloom and Heather Trumbower and M. Weirauch and David N. Cooper and Peter D. Stenson and Bin Ma and Michael R. Brent and Manimozhiyan Arumugam and David D. Shteynberg and Richard R. Copley and Martin S. Taylor and Harold C. Riethman and Uma Mudunuri and Jane L. Peterson and Mark Guyer and Adam Felsenfeld and Susan E. Old and Stephen C . Mockrin and Francis S. Collins}, journal={Nature}, year={2004}, volume={428 6982}, pages={493-521} }