Genome Sequence of the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans): Vector of African Trypanosomiasis

@article{Watanabe2014GenomeSO,
  title={Genome Sequence of the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans): Vector of African Trypanosomiasis},
  author={Junichi Watanabe and Masahira Hattori and Matthew Berriman and Michael J. Lehane and Neil Hall and Philippe Solano and Serap Aksoy and Winston A Hide and Y{\'e}ya Ti{\'e}moko Tour{\'e} and G. Attardo and Alistair C. Darby and Atsushi Toyoda and Christiane Hertz-Fowler and Denis M. Larkin and James Anthony Cotton and Mandy Sanders and Martin T. Swain and Michael A. Quail and Noboru Inoue and Sophie Ravel and Todd D. Taylor and Tulika P. Srivastava and Vineet K. Sharma and Wesley C. Warren and Richard K. Wilson and Yutaka Suzuki and Daniel Lawson and Daniel S. T. Hughes and Karyn Megy and Daniel K. Masiga and Paul O. Mireji and Immo Alex Hansen and Jan Van Den Abbeele and Joshua B. Benoit and Kostas Bourtzis and George F. O. Obiero and Hugh M. Robertson and Jeffery W. Jones and Jing-Jiang Zhou and Linda M. Field and Markus Friedrich and Steven Ger Nyanjom and Erich Loza Telleria and Guy Caljon and Jose M.C. Ribeiro and {\'A}lvaro Acosta-Serrano and Cher-Pheng Ooi and Clair Rose and David P. Price and Lee R. Haines and Alan Christoffels and Cheolho Sim and Daphne Q.-D. Pham and David L. Denlinger and Dawn L Geiser and Irene Omedo and Joy Winzerling and Justin T. Peyton and Kevin Kamanyi Marucha and Mario Jonas and Megan E. Meuti and Neil D. Rawlings and Qirui Zhang and Rosaline Wanjiru Macharia and Veronika Mich{\'a}lkov{\'a} and Zahra Jalali Sefid Dashti and Aaron A. Baumann and Gerd G{\"a}de and Heather G Marco and Jelle Caers and Liliane Schoofs and Michael A. Riehle and Wanqi Hu and Zhijian Jake Tu and Aaron M. Tarone and Anna Rodolfa Malacrida and Caleb Kipkurui Kibet and Francesca Scolari and J J Otto Koekemoer and Judith H. Willis and Ludvik M Gomulski and Marco Falchetto and Maxwell J. Scott and Shuhua Fu and Sing-Hoi Sze and Thiago Boeno Patricio Luiz and Brian L. Weiss and Deirdre P. Walshe and Jingwen Wang and Mark Wamalwa and Sarah Wambui Mwangi and Urvashi N Ramphul and Anna K. Snyder and Corey L Brelsfoard and Gavin H. Thomas and George Tsiamis and Peter Arensburger and Rita V M Rio and Sandy J. Macdonald and Sumir Panji and Ad{\'e}le Kruger and Alia Benkahla and Apollo Simon Peter Balyeidhusa and Atway R. Msangi and Chinyere K. Okoro and Dawn Stephens and Eleanor Stanley and Feziwe Mpondo and Florence Njeri Wamwiri and Furaha Mramba and Geoffrey H. Siwo and George Githinji and Gordon W Harkins and Grace A Murilla and Heikki Lehv{\"a}slaiho and Imna I Malele and Joanna Eseri Auma and Johnson Kangethe Kinyua and Johnson O. Ouma and Loyce M. Okedi and Lucien Armel Awah Manga and Martin Aslett and Mathurin Koffi and Michael W. Gaunt and Mmule Makgamathe and Nicola J. Mulder and Oliver Manangwa and Patrick P’Odyek Abila and Patrick Wincker and Richard Gregory and Rosemary Bateta and Ryuichi Sakate and Sheila Cecily Ommeh and Stella Lehane and Tadashi Imanishi and Victor Chukwudi Osamor and Yoshihiro Kawahara},
  journal={Science},
  year={2014},
  volume={344},
  pages={380 - 386}
}
Africa's Bane Tsetse are blood-feeding, fast-flying flies that transmit a range of Trypanosoma spp. protozoan pathogens, which cause sleeping sickness in humans and their nagana in their livestock. The International GlossinaGenome Initiative (p. 380) sequenced the genome of Glossina morsitans and identified the genes for many attributes of the tsetse's remarkable biology, including viviparity and the expression of analogs of mammalian milk proteins. Tsetse are host to several specific symbionts… 
Blood feeding tsetse flies as hosts and vectors of mammals-pre-adapted African Trypanosoma: current and expected research directions
TLDR
Identification of the non- symbiotic bacterial communities hosted in the tsetse fly gut has recently been initiated and are briefly introduced those bacteria genera and species common to t setse flies collected from distinct ecosystems, that could be further studied as potential biologicals preventing the onset of the African Trypanosoma developmental program.
Interactions Between Tsetse Endosymbionts and Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus in Glossina Hosts
TLDR
Assessment of the possible impact of GpSGHV on the prevalence of tsetse endosymbionts under laboratory conditions to decipher the bidirectional interactions on six Glossina laboratory species indicates that t setse symbiont densities increased over time in tsete colonies with no clear impact of the Gp SGHV infection on symbionts density.
Tsetse blood-meal sources, endosymbionts, and trypanosome infections provide insight into African trypanosomiasis transmission in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, a wildlife-human-livestock interface
TLDR
The vertebrate blood-meals and trypanosomes-endosymbionts co-infections in tsetse flies, which have been associated with reservoirs and vector competence, respectively, on AT transmission in Kenya’s Maasai Mara National Reserve are investigated.
Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes
TLDR
Compared genomic analyses validate established evolutionary relationships and sub-genera and provide insight into the evolutionary biology underlying novel adaptations and are relevant to applied aspects of vector control such as trap design and discovery of novel pest and disease control strategies.
Molecular characterization of tsetse’s proboscis and its response to Trypanosoma congolense infection
TLDR
Results suggest that PB is a muscular organ with chemosensory and mechanOSensory capabilities and the mechanoreceptors may be point of PB-trypanosomes interactions.
Thioester‐containing proteins in the tsetse fly (Glossina) and their response to trypanosome infection
TLDR
The analysis of the tsetse TEP sequences revealed information about their structure, evolutionary relationships and expression profiles under both normal and trypanosome infection conditions, suggestive for the involvement of the TEP family in tsete innate immunity, with a possible role in the control of the trypanOSome parasite.
Tsetse fly (Glossina pallidipes) midgut responses to Trypanosoma brucei challenge
TLDR
There appears to be a lack of strong immune responses elicited by gut epithelia of teneral adults, which is functionally associated with the enhanced refractoriness to trypanosome infections reported in G. pallidipes.
Tsetse fly tolerance to T. brucei infection: transcriptome analysis of trypanosome-associated changes in the tsetse fly salivary gland
TLDR
The RNA-seq data suggest induction of a strong local tissue response in order to control the epithelial cell damage, the ROS intoxication of the cellular environment and the parasite infection, resulting in the fly tolerance to the infection.
Comparative Genomics of Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. morsitans morsitans to Reveal Gene Orthologs Involved in Infection by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
TLDR
Fly genome manipulation that prevents the onset of the developmental program of one or the other T. brucei spp.
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References

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Trypanosome Infection Establishment in the Tsetse Fly Gut Is Influenced by Microbiome-Regulated Host Immune Barriers
TLDR
It is proposed that the early immune response observed in Gmm Apo flies following parasite challenge results from the premature exposure of gut epithelia to parasite-derived immunogens in the absence of a robust PM, and tsetse's PM appears to regulate the timing of host immune induction following parasites challenge.
Presence of Extensive Wolbachia Symbiont Insertions Discovered in the Genome of Its Host Glossina morsitans morsitans
TLDR
The draft genome sequence of the cytoplasmic Wolbachia endosymbiont (cytWol) associated with Gmm is reported on to clarify the evolutionary history of the HGT events and their potential impacts on the control of tsetse populations and trypanosomiasis.
Insights into the Trypanosome-Host Interactions Revealed through Transcriptomic Analysis of Parasitized Tsetse Fly Salivary Glands
TLDR
This study provides a foundation on the molecular aspects of the trypanosome dialogue with its tsetse and mammalian hosts, necessary for future functional investigations.
Wolbachia Symbiont Infections Induce Strong Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans
TLDR
This work developed aposymbiotic and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility and confirms that Wolbachia can be used successfully as a gene driver.
Trypanosoma brucei Modifies the Tsetse Salivary Composition, Altering the Fly Feeding Behavior That Favors Parasite Transmission
TLDR
Evidence is provided for a trypanosome-mediated modification of the tsetse salivary composition that results in a drastically reduced anti-haemostatic potential and a hampered feeding performance which could lead to an increase of the vector/host contact and parasite transmission in field conditions.
The Obligate Mutualist Wigglesworthia glossinidia Influences Reproduction, Digestion, and Immunity Processes of Its Host, the Tsetse Fly
TLDR
While the vectorial competence of the young newly hatched adults without Wigglesworthia was comparable to that of their wild-type counterparts, older flies displayed higher susceptibility to trypanosome infections, indicating a role for the mutualistic symbiosis in host immunobiology.
Genome Analysis of a Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus Reveals a Novel, Large, Double-Stranded Circular DNA Virus
TLDR
Analysis of the genome of the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus revealed that it is the prototype member of a novel group of insect viruses, and sequence comparisons indicated that only 23% of GpSGHV genes displayed moderate homologies to genes from other invertebrate viruses.
Antioxidants promote establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse
TLDR
It is suggested that antioxidants reduce the midgut environment protecting trypanosomes from cell death induced by reactive oxygen species, which is central to maintenance of human sleeping sickness and nagana across sub-Saharan Africa.
Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life
TLDR
It is demonstrated that flies experienced three episodes of rapid radiation—lower Diptera (220 Ma), lower Brachycera (180 Ma), and Schizophora (65 Ma)—and a number of life history transitions to hematophagy, phytophagy and parasitism in the history of fly evolution over 260 million y.
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