Guidelines for laparoscopic peritoneal dialysis access surgery
Severe genital edema is a well-described complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Leakage of dialysate fluid from defects in the peritoneum may occur from clinically detectable and undetectable inguinal hernias, defects at the catheter insertion site, or other defects in the peritoneal membrane. We describe 3 patients (who underwent five surgical procedures), illustrating the complexity of the problem. In 2 patients, unsuccessful surgical repairs (1 catheter replacement, 1 hernia repair) were performed based on misleading radiologic findings using intraperitoneal contrast without computerized tomography (CT) scanning. The use of CT scanning with intraperitoneal contrast led to the correct diagnosis and prompt surgical correction in both patients so studied. One patient had leakage from a clinically undetectable inguinal hernia, and the other had a peritoneal defect at the Tenckhoff insertion site which was only demonstrated following a period of upright posture with a 3-liter exchange. Our experience and a review of the literature convinces us that a CT scan of the abdomen utilizing radiocontrast material added to the dialysate accurately identifies the site of leakage in CAPD patients who develop genital edema. Thus, the CT scan can help avoid unnecessary surgery and prolonged hospitalization in CAPD patients who develop genital edema.