Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  title={Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder},
  author={Stephen V. Faraone and Henrik Larsson},
  journal={Molecular Psychiatry},
  pages={562 - 575}
Decades of research show that genes play an vital role in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its comorbidity with other disorders. Family, twin, and adoption studies show that ADHD runs in families. ADHD’s high heritability of 74% motivated the search for ADHD susceptibility genes. Genetic linkage studies show that the effects of DNA risk variants on ADHD must, individually, be very small. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated several genetic… 

Insights into attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from recent genetic studies

Recent advances in quantitative and molecular genetic research from the past 5-10 years are summarized to anticipate further success with gene discovery, characterization of how the ADHD phenotype relates to other human traits and growing potential to use genomic risk factors for understanding clinical trajectories and for precision medicine approaches.

Genetics in the ADHD Clinic: How Can Genetic Testing Support the Current Clinical Practice?

A brief review of the genome-wide and candidate gene association studies with a focus on the clinical aspects, summarizing findings of ADHD disease risk, ADHD core symptoms as dimensional traits, and other traits frequently associated with ADHD which may contribute to the susceptibility to other comorbid psychiatric disorders.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and lifetime cannabis use: genetic overlap and causality

Support is found that ADHD is causal for lifetime cannabis use, with an odds ratio of 7.9, which substantiate the temporal relationship between ADHD and future cannabis use and reinforce the need to consider substance misuse in the context of ADHD in clinical interventions.

Shared genetic background between children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

It is confirmed that persistent ADHD in adults is a neurodevelopmental disorder and the existing hypothesis of a shared genetic architecture underlying ADHD and different traits to a lifespan perspective is extended.

Identification of risk variants and characterization of the polygenic architecture of disruptive behavior disorders in the context of ADHD

The results suggests that ADHD+DBDs represent a more severe phenotype with respect to the genetic risk load than ADHD without DBDs, in line with previous studies, and that the risk load to some extent can be explained by variants associated with aggressive behavior.

Polygenic profiles define aspects of clinical heterogeneity in ADHD

A novel approach was used to compare profiles of polygenic scores for groups of individuals diagnosed with ADHD and robust evidence that biology is an important factor in on-going clinical debates was uncovered, allowing for timely contributions to the understanding of ADHD etiology and providing a model for similar studies of other disorders.

Transcriptome profiling in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder


A GWAS meta-analysis of ADHD found ADHD to be highly polygenic, with around seven thousand variants explaining 90% of the SNP heritability and common variant ADHD risk was associated with impaired complex cognition such as verbal reasoning and a range of executive functions including attention.

Localizing regions in the genome contributing to ADHD, aggressive and antisocial behavior

Converging evidence from different cross-trait analyses approaches highlights novel candidate genes underlying the shared biological mechanisms of ADHD, AGG and ASB.



Genetics of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  • S. Faraone
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Psychiatric clinics of North America
  • 2004

Genome-wide association studies in ADHD

The GWAS performed so far in ADHD, though far from conclusive, provide a first glimpse at genes for the disorder, and findings from the individual studies converge to paint an interesting picture.

Discovery of the first genome-wide significant risk loci for ADHD

The hypothesis that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of one or more continuous heritable traits is supported, supported by additional analyses of a self-reported ADHD sample and a study of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population.

Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

It is proposed that future studies examining shared familial etiological factors for ADHD and ASD use a family-based design in which the same phenotypic (ADHD and ASD), candidate endophenotypic, and environmental measurements are obtained from all family members.

Molecular genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Shared Genetic Influences Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Traits in Children and Clinical ADHD

The genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults, a review

Progress in identifying aADHD risk genes may provide tools for the prediction of disease progression in the clinic and better treatment, and ultimately may help to prevent persistence of ADHD into adulthood.

A genetic study of ADHD and activity level in infancy

It is found that ADHD symptoms,AL in the home and AL in the lab represent heritable phenotypes in 2‐year‐old infants, and genetic correlations suggest that AL inthe home is more comparable than AL inThe lab to ADHD behaviour and support the separation of all three for molecular analyses.

Evidence for a genetic etiology in hyperactivity in children

Multiple regression is used to analyze data from a sample of 91 pairs of identical twins and 105 pairs of same sex fraternal twins and results are consistent with a significant genetic contribution to individual differences in activity levels and attention abilities.