Genetics of Modern Human Origins and Diversity

@article{Relethford2018GeneticsOM,
  title={Genetics of Modern Human Origins and Diversity},
  author={John H Relethford},
  journal={The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology},
  year={2018}
}
  • J. Relethford
  • Published 21 October 1998
  • Biology
  • The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology
▪ Abstract A major and continuing debate in anthropology concerns the question of whether modern Homo sapiens emerged as a separate species roughly 200,000 years ago in Africa (recent African origin model) or as the consequence of evolution within a polytypic species spread across several regions of the Old World (multiregional model). Genetic data have been used to address this debate, focusing on the analysis of gene trees, genetic diversity within populations, and genetic differences between… 

Models, predictions, and the fossil record of modern human origins

It is clear from the recent contents of this journal and others that the debate about modern human origins continues unabated. My own foray into this subject has dealt with some of the genetic

Human Demography in the Pleistocene: Do Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes Tell the Same Story?

TLDR
A popular hypothesis proposes that modern human populations passed through a bottleneck in the late Middle or early Late Pleistocene, at which time there existed perhaps only several thousand breeding individuals, and that this was followed by a rapid, large expansion.

Absence of regional affinities of Neandertal DNA with living humans does not reject multiregional evolution.

  • J. Relethford
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2001
TLDR
Consideration of migration matrix models shows that the conclusion that ancient DNA analysis supports the African replacement model of modern human origins and rejects models of multiregional evolution that propose some Neandertal ancestry in living humans is premature.

Homo erectus in East Asia: Human Ancestor or Evolutionary Dead-End?

TLDR
In order to better understand the nature of Homo erectus, the significance of its evolutionary history in East Asia, and the role it played in human evolution, it is first necessary to come to grips with what is meant by the term itself, as H. erectus has come to mean different things to different people.

Anthropological Genetics in the Genomic Era: A Look Back and Ahead

TLDR
The existence of large, publicly available molecular genetic databases, coupled with advances in analytical methods, makes it possible to tackle a wide variety of problems in human evolution not possible with classical markers and traditional analytical methods.

Postcranial remains and the origin of modern humans

TLDR
Genetic data and new radiometric dates for key fossils that lie beyond the range of radiocarbon dating have substantially added to the knowledge derived from the fossil evidence documenting the transition from archaic to modern humans, but these new data have failed to resolve the problem in its entirety.

Revisiting the demographic history of Central African populations from a genetic perspective

TLDR
How technology and population genetic methods have advanced to give more detailed inferences about population structure, migrations, admixture patterns, timing of admixture, sex-biased admixtures, and inferences of selection and adaptive introgression in rainforest hunter-gatherers and other African populations is reviewed.

Molecular anthropology in the genomic era.

TLDR
An overview of the meeting is presented and perspectives and prospects of Molecular Anthropology in the genomic era are discussed, keeping in line with methodological innovations which are moving the approach from the genetic to the genomic level.

Archaeology and the origins of modern humans: European and African perspectives

TLDR
This chapter compares the archaeological evidence associated with the appearance of anatomically modern humans in Europe and Africa to assess how far these well-documented changes in the archaeological record reflect not only major shifts in behavioural patterns, but also underlying shifts in the cognitive capacities for behaviour, including increasing complexity in the structure of language.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 120 REFERENCES

Genetics and modern human origins

TLDR
The recent African origin model proposing that modern humans appeared first in Africa between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago, and then spread through the rest of the Old World, replacing preexisting populations, contrasts with the multiregional model, which proposes a species‐wide transition to modern humans throughout theOld World during the past million years or more.

A GENETIC PERSPECTIVE ON THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF HUMANS

TLDR
To cover a wide range of possible demographic situations in the human lineage since the Miocene, a model is introduced that allows temporal changes in population structure and size and the coalescence process of neutral genes is formulated and used to make quantitative inferences on the origin and history of humans.

DNA and recent human evolution

TLDR
The focus of this review is the mtDNA story, and brief mention is made of studies of nuclear DNA variation (both autosomal and Y‐chromosome DNA) and the implications of the genetic data with regard to the fossil record and the authors' understanding of recent human evolution.

Origins and affinities of modern humans: a comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data.

TLDR
The results, which represent the first direct comparison of mtDNA and nuclear genetic data in major continental populations, undermine the genetic evidence for an African origin of modern humans.

Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans.

TLDR
Genetic data on present human population relationships and data from the Pleistocene fossil hominid record are used to compare two contrasting models for the origin of modern humans.

Matrix correlation tests support a single origin for modern humans

TLDR
The first quantitative test of the fossil evidence for each of these models of human origins is given, finding that a single African and/or Levantine origin for modern humans is supported.

The Myth of Eve: Molecular Biology and Human Origins: F. J. Ayala

TLDR
It has been proposed that modern humans descended from a single woman, the "mitochondrial Eve" who lived in Africa 100,000 to 200,000 years ago, and the weight of the evidence is against a population bottleneck before their emergence.

Molecular genetics of speciation and human origins.

TLDR
The MHC and other molecular polymorphisms are consistent with a "multiregional" theory of Pleistocene human evolution that proposes regional continuity of human populations since the time of migrations of Homo erectus to the present, with distinctive regional selective pressures and occasional migrations between populations.

Archeology, population genetics and studies of human racial ancestry.

TLDR
It is shown that the probable demographic nature of Pleistocene populations has obscured genetic distances to such an extent that they cannot be used to discriminate between the two viewpoints of racial origins, so that the authors presently do not have a scientifically valid understanding ofracial origins.

Craniometric variation, genetic theory, and modern human origins.

TLDR
This work presents a model of within-group phenotypic variation and a method for analyzing ancient population structure, which provides estimates of ancient migration, and suggests that the long-term effective population size was greatest in Africa.
...