Genetics and demography in biological conservation.

@article{Lande1988GeneticsAD,
  title={Genetics and demography in biological conservation.},
  author={Russell Lande},
  journal={Science},
  year={1988},
  volume={241 4872},
  pages={
          1455-60
        }
}
  • R. Lande
  • Published 16 September 1988
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • Science
Predicting the extinction of single populations or species requires ecological and evolutionary information. Primary demographic factors affecting population dynamics include social structure, life history variation caused by environmental fluctuation, dispersal in spatially heterogeneous environments, and local extinction and colonization. In small populations, inbreeding can greatly reduce the average individual fitness, and loss of genetic variability from random genetic drift can diminish… 

THE ROLE OF GENETIC VARIATION IN ADAPTATION AND POPULATION PERSISTENCE IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

  • R. LandeS. Shannon
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1996
TLDR
It is shown that in constant or unpredictable environments genetic variability reduces population mean fitness and increases the risk of extinction, and in predictable, highly variable environments genetic variance may be essential for adaptive evolution and population persistence.

Experimental separation of genetic and demographic factors on extinction risk in wild populations.

TLDR
These results match theoretical predictions that demographic processes will generally doom small populations to extinction before genetic effects act strongly, prioritize detailed ecological analysis over descriptions of genetic structure in assessing conservation of at-risk species, and highlight the need for field experiments manipulating both demographics and genetic structure on long-term extinction risk.

Landscape Connections and Genetic Diversity

TLDR
This chapter reviews how population genetic processes interact with landscape processes in a conservation biology context and suggests practical ways that managers can address these interactions.

Genetics of Insect Populations in Fragmented Landscapes - A Comparison of Species and Habitats

TLDR
Analysis of population genetics may provide data that can be included in simulation models for the estimation of population viability and for the persistence of genetic variability in metapopulations under different environmental scenarios.

Demography, genetic, and extinction process in a spatially structured population of lekking bird

TLDR
This study showed that the population of T. urogallus experienced a severe decline between 2010 and 2015, but did not detect any Allee effect on survival and recruitment, and underlines the benefit from combining demographic and genetic approaches to investigate processes that are involved in biological extinctions.

Demography, genetics, and decline of a spatially structured population of lekking bird.

TLDR
The study showed that the population of T. urogallus experienced a severe decline between 2010 and 2015, and despite this, it did not detect evidence of inbreeding depression: neither adult survival nor recruitment were affected by individual inbreeding level.

Recent demographic histories and genetic diversity across pinnipeds are shaped by anthropogenic interactions and mediated by ecology and life-history

TLDR
This study reveals an unforeseen interplay between anthropogenic exploitation, ecology, life history and demographic declines, sheds new light on the determinants of genetic diversity, and is consistent with the notion that both genetic and demographic factors influence population viability.

The inflated significance of neutral genetic diversity in conservation genetics

TLDR
It is demonstrated that no simple general relationship exists between neutral genetic diversity and the risk of species extinction, and a better understanding of the properties of functional genetic diversity, demographic history, and ecological relationships is necessary for developing and implementing effective conservation genetic strategies.

Anthropogenic, ecological and genetic factors in extinction and conservation

  • R. Lande
  • Environmental Science
    Researches on Population Ecology
  • 2007
TLDR
All factors affecting extinction risk are expressed, and can be evaluated, through their operation on population dynamics, and the genetic factors of inbreeding depression, loss of genetic variability, and fixation of new deleterious mutations are expressed.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 45 REFERENCES

Genetic Variation and Phenotypic Evolution During Allopatric Speciation

  • R. Lande
  • Biology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1980
TLDR
It is concluded that Mayr's theory of allopatric speciation overemphasized both the genetic cohesion of widespread species and the founder effect on heterozygosity and quantitative genetic variation, and data on the strength of natural selection and the spontaneous mutability of quantitative characters provide a feasible microevolutionary mechanism for substantial and geologically rapid phenotypic evolution in small isolated populations.

Extinction Thresholds in Demographic Models of Territorial Populations

  • R. Lande
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1987
TLDR
A basic demographic model is constructed for territorial species in a region where patches of habitat suitable for survival and reproduction are randomly (or evenly) interspersed with patches of unsuitable habitat, and the population will become extinct in the region if h $\leq$ 1 - k.

Minimum Population Sizes for Species Conservation

Many species cannot survive in mandominated habitats. Reserves of essentially undisturbed habitat are necessary if such species are to survive in the wild. Aside from increased efforts to accelerate

Extinction dynamics of age-structured populations in a fluctuating environment.

  • R. LandeS. Orzack
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1988
We model density-independent growth of an age- (or stage-) structured population, assuming that mortality and reproductive rates fluctuate as stationary time series. Analytical formulas are derived

Background and Mass Extinctions: The Alternation of Macroevolutionary Regimes

Comparison of evolutionary patterns among Late Cretaceous marine bivalves and gastropods during times of normal, background levels of extinction and during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

The cost of phenotypic evolution

TLDR
It is concluded that most selective elimination is due to stabilizing selection, and that even very rapid evolutionary change in a single character usually involves low levels of additional elimination.

Niche Width in a Fluctuating Environment-Density Independent Model

TLDR
A model of the effect of density-independent optimizing selection on the distribution of a character is developed and it is found that there would be selection for a lower variance in a constant environment and a larger variance when the optimal value of the character is changing in time.

The Effect of an Experimental Bottleneck upon Quantitative Genetic Variation in the Housefly.

TLDR
Effects of a population bottleneck (founder-flush cycle) upon quantitative genetic variation of morphometric traits were examined in replicated experimental lines of the housefly founded with one, four or 16 pairs of flies, indicating that there was nonadditivity of allelic effects for these traits.

Viable Populations for Conservation

TLDR
The role of interagency cooperation in managing for viable populations Hal Salwasser, Christine Schonewald-Cox and Richard Baker help clarify the role of agencies in population management.