Genetics and conservation of wolves Canis lupus in Europe

@article{Randi2011GeneticsAC,
  title={Genetics and conservation of wolves Canis lupus in Europe},
  author={Ettore Randi},
  journal={Mammal Review},
  year={2011},
  volume={41},
  pages={99-111}
}
  • E. Randi
  • Published 1 April 2011
  • Biology
  • Mammal Review
1 The wolf Canis lupus, the most widespread of the four species of large carnivores in Europe, after centuries of population decline and eradication, is now recovering in many countries. Wolves contribute to regulating prey–predator dynamics and interact with human activities, mainly livestock farming and ungulate hunting. Although wolves are protected in most European countries, illegal or incidental killing is widespread. 2 Wolf populations do not show any apparent phylogeographic… 
Genetic diversity and population structure of the grey wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) and evidence of wolf × dog hybridisation in the centre of European Russia
TLDR
A detailed study of spatio-temporal population genetics and analysis of hybridisation in the wolves of Central Russia finds a lack of spatial structure and a weak pattern of isolation by distance, which are clear cases of intense gene flow and social organisation of the species.
Wolf population genetics at the south-eastern edge of their European range
TLDR
The population genetics of wolves at the south-eastern edge of their European range, in Greece, are investigated, which suggests that the human-caused population reduction of wolves in Greece may not have been as severe as previously assumed and that enough wolves may have survived in inaccessible areas and/or neighboring countries to maintain genetic diversity.
Wolf population genetics in Europe: a systematic review, meta‐analysis and suggestions for conservation and management
TLDR
The most pressing issues threatening wolf populations in Europe are discussed, important gaps in current knowledge are highlighted, solutions to overcome these limitations are suggested, and recommendations for science‐based wolf conservation and management at regional and Europe‐wide scales are provided.
Why do wolves eat livestock?: Factors influencing wolf diet in northern Italy
Thanks to protection by law and increasing habitat restoration, wolves (Canis lupus) are currently re-colonizing Europe from the surviving populations of Russia, the Balkan countries, Spain and
Combining phylogenetic and demographic inferences to assess the origin of the genetic diversity in an isolated wolf population
TLDR
The extent and origin of the genetic variation of the Italian wolf population, which is expanding after centuries of decline and isolation, is reassessed and it is shown that the unique mtDNA haplotypes in the Italian wolves likely originated during the late Pleistocene.
Long-distance dispersal of a wolf, Canis lupus, in northwestern Europe
Several mammal species have recolonized their historical ranges across Europe during the last decades. In November 2012, a wolf-looking canid was found dead in Thy National Park (56° 56′ N, 8° 25′ E)
Genetic characterization of grey wolves (Canis lupus L. 1758) from Bosnia and Herzegovina: implications for conservation
TLDR
The genetic variability and structure of the grey wolf population from Bosnia and Herzegovina is determined, as well as levels of gene flow and inbreeding and genetic signals of a bottleneck are evaluated.
Past and present genetic diversity and structure of the Finnish wolf population
Many species and populations have perished as a consequence of human actions. During the last ~200 years, large carnivores have been almost completely extirpated from Western Europe. Largescale wolf
Old wild wolves: ancient DNA survey unveils population dynamics in Late Pleistocene and Holocene Italian remains
TLDR
The genetic variability of the most ancient wolf specimens from Italy analyzed so far is described, providing a preliminary overview of the genetic make-up of the population that inhabited this area from the last glacial maximum to the Middle Age period and suggest complex population dynamics that deserve to be further investigated based on mitochondrial or whole genome sequencing.
Hybridization between wolf and domestic dog: First evidence from an endangered population in central Portugal
TLDR
This work reports for the first time a wolf-dog hybrid located in the south of the Douro river, Portugal, which is the second hybrid found in Portugal and even if hybridization cases are still considered rare, they can be particularly problematic in isolated, fragmented and endangered populations.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 69 REFERENCES
Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf Canis lupus
TLDR
The results suggest that fluctuating population sizes during the late Pleistocene have left a genetic signature on levels of variation in both species, and a statistical parsimony analysis indicates local genetic structure that suggests recent restricted gene flow.
Evidence of genetic distinction and long‐term population decline in wolves (Canis lupus) in the Italian Apennines
TLDR
Results of a Bayesian coalescent model indicate that wolves in Italy underwent a 100‐ to 1000‐fold population contraction over the past 2000–10 000 years, suggesting that wolves have apparently been genetically isolated for thousands of generations south of the Alps.
Megafaunal Extinctions and the Disappearance of a Specialized Wolf Ecomorph
TLDR
A previously unrecognized, uniquely adapted, and genetically distinct wolf ecomorph suffered extinction in the Late Pleistocene, along with other megafauna, and the survival of the species in North America depended on the presence of more generalized forms elsewhere.
Genetic Structure and Migration in Native and Reintroduced Rocky Mountain Wolf Populations
Gray wolf (Canis lupus) recovery in the Rocky Mountains of the U.S. is proceeding by both natural recolonization and managed reintroduction. We used DNA microsatellite analysis of wolves transplanted
Rescue of a severely bottlenecked wolf (Canis lupus) population by a single immigrant
TLDR
It is shown here that the genetic diversity of the severely bottlenecked and geographically isolated Scandinavian population of grey wolves (Canis lupus), founded by only two individuals, was recovered by the arrival of a single immigrant.
Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Italian and East European Wolves: Detecting the Consequences of Small Population Size and Hybridization
TLDR
The observed mtDNA monomorphism is the possible outcome of random drift in the declining and isolated Italian wolfpopulation, which probably existed at low effective population size during the last 100- 150 years.
Prey specialization may influence patterns of gene flow in wolves of the Canadian Northwest
TLDR
Results indicate that wolf gene flow is reduced significantly across the Mackenzie River, most likely due to the north–south migration patterns of the barren‐ground caribou herds that flank it, and the possibility that these barriers reflect prey specialization by wolves in different regions.
Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either.
Ecological factors influence population genetic structure of European grey wolves
TLDR
It is shown that wolf populations in Eastern Europe displayed nonrandom spatial genetic structure in the absence of obvious physical barriers to movement, and it is found that the genetic differentiation among local populations was correlated with climate, habitat types, and wolf diet composition.
The genetic legacy of extirpation and re-colonization in Vancouver Island wolves
TLDR
Genetic data show that Vancouver Island wolves are distinct from dogs and thus should be recognized as a population of wild wolves, and suggest that the introgression took place due to the Allee effect, specifically a lack of mates when population size was low.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...