Genetic variants of the TbAT1 adenosine transporter from African trypanosomes in relapse infections following melarsoprol therapy.

@article{Matovu2001GeneticVO,
  title={Genetic variants of the TbAT1 adenosine transporter from African trypanosomes in relapse infections following melarsoprol therapy.},
  author={Enock Matovu and Federico Geiser and V. M. Schneider and Pascal M{\"a}ser and John Charles Enyaru and Ronald Kaminsky and Sabina Gallati and T. J. Seebeck},
  journal={Molecular and biochemical parasitology},
  year={2001},
  volume={117 1},
  pages={
          73-81
        }
}

Genotypic Status of the TbAT1/P2 Adenosine Transporter of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Isolates from Northwestern Uganda following Melarsoprol Withdrawal

TLDR
The results suggest that melarsoprol could successfully be reintroduced following a time lag subsequent to its replacement, and will facilitate cost-effective management of HAT in rural resource-poor settings, given that eflornithine has a much higher logistical requirement for its application.

Aquaporin 2 Mutations in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Field Isolates Correlate with Decreased Susceptibility to Pentamidine and Melarsoprol

TLDR
Two different kinds of TbAQP2 mutations found in T. b.

Functional analysis of drug resistance‐associated mutations in the T rypanosoma brucei adenosine transporter 1 (TbAT1) and the proposal of a structural model for the protein

TLDR
Earlier hypotheses of drug binding motifs for TbAT1 validate earlier hypotheses of resistance to diamidine and melaminophenyl arsenical classes of drugs that form the backbone of the pharmacopoeia against African trypanosomiasis.

Comparative genomics of drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is one of the causative agents of human sleeping sickness, a fatal disease that is transmitted by tsetse flies and restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa. Here we investigate

University of Dundee Aquaporin 2 Mutations in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Field Isolates Correlate with Decreased Susceptibility to Pentamidine and Melarsoprol Graf,

TLDR
Two different kinds of TbAQP2 mutations found in T. gambiense carrying such mutations correlate with a significantly reduced susceptibility to pentamidine and melarsoprol, as demonstrated by field isolates of T. b.

Whole genome sequencing shows sleeping sickness relapse is due to parasite regrowth and not reinfection

TLDR
This work exemplifies the utility of using evolutionary approaches to provide novel insights and tools for disease control as it found that strains isolated before and after treatment from the same patient were more similar to each other than to other isolates.

Factors influencing the spread and selection of drug resistance in Human African Trypanosomiasis

TLDR
The evidence indicated surprisingly little genetic exchange with an excess in homozygosity and alleles in linkage disequilibrium within the Omugo, trypanosome population, and the apparent instability of TbAT1 mutants in the field may be exploited for rational or alternating use of melarsoprol and eflornithine to ensure a longer life for eflORNithine, delaying the onset of resistance.

A Molecular Mechanism for Eflornithine Resistance in African Trypanosomes

TLDR
Eflornithine resistance is easy to select through loss of a putative amino acid transporter, TbAAT6, and will be easily identified in the field using a simple PCR test, enabling more appropriate chemotherapy to be administered.

Molecular Pharmacology of Adenosine Transport in Trypanosoma brucei: P1/P2 Revisited

TLDR
It is surprising that the tbat1-/- mutant grows faster than TbAT1+/+ trypanosomes and that it overexpresses genes of the TbNT cluster encoding P1-type transporters, but this unexpected phenotypes show that there are conditions other than drug pressure under which loss of P2 may confer a selective advantage to bloodstream-form trypanOSomes.
...

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TLDR
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TLDR
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