Association of GCLM -588C/T and GCLC -129T/C Promoter Polymorphisms of Genes Coding the Subunits of Glutamate Cysteine Ligase with Ischemic Heart Disease Development in Kazakhstan Population
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a strong risk factor for lung cancer. Published studies about variations of genes encoding glutathione metabolism, DNA repair, and inflammatory response pathways in susceptibility to COPD were inconclusive. We evaluated 470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 56 genes of these three pathways in 620 cases and 893 controls to identify susceptibility markers for COPD risk, using existing resources. We assessed SNP- and gene-level effects adjusting for sex, age, and smoking status. Differential genetic effects on disease risk with and without lung cancer were also assessed; cumulative risk models were established. Twenty-one SNPs were found to be significantly associated with risk of COPD (P < 0.01); gene-based analyses confirmed two genes (GCLC and GSS) and identified three additional genes (GSTO2, ERCC1, and RRM1). Carrying 12 high-risk alleles may increase risk by 2.7-fold; eight SNPs altered COPD risk without lung cancer by 3.1-fold and 4 SNPs altered the risk with lung cancer by 2.3-fold. Our findings indicate that multiple genetic variations in the three selected pathways contribute to COPD risk through GCLC, GSS, GSTO2, ERCC1, and RRM1 genes. Functional studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of these genes in the development of COPD, lung cancer, or both.