Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

@article{Locke2015GeneticSO,
  title={Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology},
  author={Adam E. Locke and Bratati Kahali and Sonja I. Berndt and Anne E. Justice and Tune H. Pers and Felix R. Day and Corey Powell and Sailaja Vedantam and Martin L Buchkovich and Jian Yang and Damien C. Croteau-Chonka and T{\~o}nu Esko and Tove Fall and Teresa Ferreira and Stefan Gustafsson and Zolt{\'a}n Kutalik and Jian’an Luan and Reedik M{\"a}gi and Joshua C. Randall and Thomas W. Winkler and Andrew R. Wood and Tsegaselassie Workalemahu and Jessica D Faul and Jennifer A. Smith and Jing Hua Zhao and Wei Zhao and Jin Chen and Rudolf S. N. Fehrmann and {\AA}sa K. Hedman and Juha Karjalainen and Ellen M. Schmidt and Devin M Absher and Najaf Amin and Denise Anderson and Marian Beekman and Jennifer L. Bolton and Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham and Steven Buyske and Ayşe Demirkan and Guohong Deng and Georg B. Ehret and Bjarke Feenstra and Mary F. Feitosa and Krista Fischer and Anuj Goel and Jian Gong and Anne U. Jackson and Stavroula Kanoni and Marcus Edi Kleber and Kati Kristiansson and Unhee Lim and Vaneet S. Lotay and Massimo Mangino and Irene Mateo Leach and Carolina Medina-Gomez and Sarah E. Medland and Mike A. Nalls and Cameron Palmer and Dorota Pasko and Sonali Pechlivanis and Marjolein J. Peters and Inga Prokopenko and Dmitry Shungin and Alena Stan{\vc}{\'a}kov{\'a} and Rona J. Strawbridge and Yun Ju Sung and Toshiko Tanaka and Alexander Teumer and Stella Trompet and Sander W. Van der Laan and Jessica van Setten and Jana V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk and Zhaoming Wang and Loic Yengo and Weihua Zhang and Aaron Isaacs and Eva Albrecht and Johan {\"A}rnl{\"o}v and Gillian M. Arscott and Antony Paul Attwood and Stefania Bandinelli and Amy Barrett and Isabelita N. Bas and Claire Bellis and Amanda Bennett and Christian Berne and Roza Blagieva and Matthias Bl{\"u}her and Stefan B{\"o}hringer and Lori L Bonnycastle and Yvonne B{\"o}ttcher and Heather Allison Boyd and Marcel Bruinenberg and Ida Henriette Caspersen and Yii-DerIda Chen and Robert J. Clarke and E. Warwick Daw and A.J.M. de Craen and Graciela E. Delgado and Maria Dimitriou and Alex S. F. Doney and Niina Eklund and Karol Estrada and Elodie Eury and Lasse Folkersen and Ross M Fraser and Melissa E. Garcia and Frank Geller and Vilmantas Giedraitis and Bruna Gigante and Alan S. Go and Alain Golay and Alison H. Goodall and Scott D. Gordon and Mathias Gorski and Hans J{\"o}rgen Grabe and Harald Grallert and Tanja B. Grammer and J{\"u}rgen Gr{\"a}ssler and Henrik Gr{\"o}nberg and Christopher J. Groves and Ga{\"e}lle Gusto and Jeff Haessler and Per Hall and Toomas Haller and Göran Hallmans and Catharina A. Hartman and Maija Hassinen and Caroline Hayward and Nancy L. Heard-Costa and Quinta Helmer and Christian Hengstenberg and Oddgeir Lingaas Holmen and Jouke- Jan Hottenga and Alan L James and Janina M. Jeff and {\AA}sa Johansson and Jennifer D. Jolley and Thorhildur Juliusdottir and Leena Kinnunen and Wolfgang Koenig and Markku J. Koskenvuo and Wolfgang Kratzer and Jaana Laitinen and Claudia Lamina and Karin Leander and Nanette R. Lee and Peter Lichtner and Lars Lind and Jaana Lindstr{\"o}m and Ken Sin Lo and St{\'e}phane Lobbens and Roberto Lorbeer and Yingchang Lu and François Mach and Patrik K. E. Magnusson and Anubha Mahajan and Wendy L McArdle and Stela McLachlan and Cristina Menni and Sigrun Merger and Evelin Mihailov and Lili Milani and Alireza Moayyeri and Keri L. Monda and Mario A. Morken and Antonella Mulas and Gabriele M{\"u}ller and Martina M{\"u}ller-Nurasyid and Arthur William Musk and Ramaiah Nagaraja and Markus M. N{\"o}then and Ilja Maria Nolte and Stefan Pilz and Nigel William Rayner and Frida Renstrom and Rainer Rettig and Janina S. Ried and Stephan Ripke and Neil R. Robertson and Lynda M Rose and Serena Sanna and Hubert Scharnagl and Salome Scholtens and Fredrick R. Schumacher and William R Scott and Thomas Seufferlein and Jianxin Shi and Albert Vernon Smith and Joanna Smolonska and Alice V. Stanton and Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir and Kathleen E. Stirrups and Heather M. Stringham and Johan Sundstr{\"o}m and Morris A. Swertz and Amy J. Swift and Ann-Christine Syv{\"a}nen and Sian-Tsung Tan and Bamidele O. Tayo and Barbara Thorand and Gudmar Thorleifsson and Jonathan P. Tyrer and Hae-Won Uh and Liesbeth Vandenput and Frank C. Verhulst and Sita H. Vermeulen and Niek Verweij and Judith M. Vonk and Lindsay L. Waite and Helen R. Warren and Dawn M. Waterworth and Michael N. Weedon and Lynne Wilkens and Christina Willenborg and Tom Wilsgaard and Mary K. Wojczynski and Andrew Wong and Alan F. Wright and Qunyuan Zhang and Eoin P. Brennan and Murim Choi and Zari Dastani and Alexander W. Drong and Per Eriksson and Anders Franco‐Cereceda and Jesper R G{\aa}din and Ali G. Gharavi and Michael Goddard and Robert E. Handsaker and Jinyan Huang and Fredrik Karpe and Sekar Kathiresan and Sarah Keildson and Krzysztof Kiryluk and Michiaki Kubo and Jong-Young Lee and Liming Liang and Richard P. Lifton and Baoshan Ma and Steven Mccarroll and Amy Jayne McKnight and Josine L. Min and Miriam F. Moffatt and Grant W. Montgomery and Joanne M. Murabito and George Nicholson and Dale R. Nyholt and Yukinori Okada and John R. B. Perry and R. Dorajoo and Eva Reinmaa and Rany M. Salem and Niina Sandholm and Robert A. Scott and Lisette Stolk and Atsushi Takahashi and Toshihiro Tanaka and Ferdinand van't Hooft and Anna A. E. Vinkhuyzen and Harm-Jan Westra and Wei Zheng and Krina T. Zondervan and Andrew C. Heath and Dominique Arveiler and Stephan J. L. Bakker and John P. Beilby and Richard N. Bergman and John Blangero and Pascal Bovet and Harry Campbell and Mark J. Caulfield and Giancarlo Cesana and Aravinda Chakravarti and Daniel I. Chasman and Peter S. Chines and Francis S. Collins and Dana C. Crawford and L. Adrienne Cupples and Daniele Cusi and John Danesh and Ulf de Faire and Hester M. den Ruijter and Anna F. Dominiczak and Raimund Erbel and Jeanette Erdmann and Johan Gunnar Eriksson and Martin Farrall and Stephan B. Felix and Ele Ferrannini and Jean Ferri{\`e}res and Ian Ford and Nita G. Forouhi and Terrence E Forrester and Oscar H. Franco and Ron T. Gansevoort and Pablo V. Gejman and Christian Gieger and Omri Gottesman and Vilmundur G. Gudnason and Ulf Gyllensten and Alistair S. Hall and Tamara B. Harris and Andrew T. Hattersley and Andrew A. Hicks and Lucia A. Hindorff and Aroon D. Hingorani and Albert Hofman and Georg Homuth and G Kees Hovingh and Steve E. Humphries and Steven C. Hunt and Elina Hypp{\"o}nen and Thomas Illig and Kevin B. Jacobs and Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin and Karl-Heinz J{\"o}ckel and Berit Johansen and Pekka Jousilahti and Johan Wouter Jukema and Antti M Jula and Jaakko A Kaprio and John J Kastelein and Sirkka Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi and Lambertus A.L.M. Kiemeney and Paul Knekt and Jaspal S Kooner and Charles Kooperberg and Peter Kovacs and Aldi T. Kraja and Meena Kumari and Johanna Kuusisto and Timo A. Lakka and Claudia Langenberg and Loic Le Marchand and Terho Lehtim{\"a}ki and Valeriya Lyssenko and Satu M{\"a}nnist{\"o} and Andr{\'e} Marette and Tara Cox Matise and Colin A Mckenzie and Barbara McKnight and Frans L. Moll and Andrew D. Morris and Andrew P. Morris and Jeffrey C. Murray and Mari Nelis and Claes Ohlsson and Albertine J. Oldehinkel and Ken K. Ong and Pamela A. F. Madden and Gerard Pasterkamp and John F. Peden and Annette Peters and Dirkje S Postma and Peter P. Pramstaller and Jackie F. Price and Lu Qi and Olli T. Raitakari and Tuomo Rankinen and D. C. Rao and Treva K. Rice and Paul M. Ridker and John D. Rioux and Marylyn DeRiggi Ritchie and Igor Rudan and Veikko V Salomaa and Nilesh J. Samani and Jouko Saramies and Mark A. Sarzynski and Heribert Schunkert and Peter E H Schwarz and Peter Sever and Alan R. Shuldiner and Juha P. Sinisalo and Ronald P Stolk and Konstantin Strauch and Anke Tönjes and David A Tr{\'e}gou{\"e}t and Angelo Tremblay and Elena Tremoli and Jarmo R. K. Virtamo and Marie-Claude Vohl and Uwe V{\"o}lker and G{\'e}rard Waeber and Gonneke Willemsen and Jacqueline C. M. Witteman and M. Carola Zillikens and Linda S Adair and Philippe Amouyel and Folkert W. Asselbergs and Themistocles L. Assimes and Murielle Bochud and Bernhard Otto Boehm and Eric Boerwinkle and Stefan R. Bornstein and Erwin P. Bottinger and Claude Bouchard and Stéphane Cauchi and John C Chambers and Stephen J. Chanock and Richard S. Cooper and Paul I. W. de Bakker and George V. Dedoussis and Luigi Ferrucci and Paul W. Franks and Philippe Froguel and Leif C. Groop and Christopher A. Haiman and Anders Hamsten and Jennie Hui and David J. Hunter and Kristian Hveem and Robert C. Kaplan and Mika Kivimaki and Diana Kuh and Markku Laakso and Yongmei Liu and Nicholas G. Martin and Winfried M{\"a}rz and Mads Melbye and Andres Metspalu and Susanne Moebus and Patricia B. Munroe and Inger Nj{\o}lstad and Ben A. Oostra and Colin N. A. Palmer and Nancy L. Pedersen and Markus Perola and Louis P{\'e}russe and Ulrike Peters and Christine Power and Thomas Quertermous and Rainer Rauramaa and Fernando Rivadeneira and Timo E. Saaristo and Danish Saleheen and Naveed Sattar and Eric E. Schadt and David Schlessinger and Pieternella E Slagboom and Harold Snieder and Tim D. Spector and Unnur Thorsteinsd{\'o}ttir and Michael Stumvoll and Jaakko Tuomilehto and Andr{\'e} G. Uitterlinden and Matti Uusitupa and Pim van der Harst and Mark Walker and Henri Wallaschofski and Nicholas J. Wareham and Hugh C. Watkins and David R. Weir and Heinz-Erich Wichmann and James F. Wilson and Pieter Zanen and Ingrid B. Borecki and Panos Deloukas and Caroline S Fox and Iris M. Heid and Jeffrey R. O’Connell and David P. Strachan and K{\'a}ri Stef{\'a}nsson and Cornelia van Duijn and Gonçalo R. Abecasis and Lude Franke and Timothy M. Frayling and Mark I. McCarthy and Peter M. Visscher and Andr{\'e} Scherag and Cristen J. Willer and Michael Boehnke and Karen L. Mohlke and Cecilia M. Lindgren and Jacques S. Beckmann and In{\^e}s Barroso and Kari E. North and Erik Ingelsson and Joel N. Hirschhorn and Ruth J. F. Loos and Elizabeth K. Speliotes},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2015},
  volume={518},
  pages={197-206}
}
Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10−8), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have… 
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A genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
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