Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

@article{Lee2013GeneticRB,
  title={Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs},
  author={S. Hong Lee and Stephan Ripke and Benjamin M. Neale and Stephen V. Faraone and Shaun M Purcell and Roy H. Perlis and Bryan J. Mowry and Anita Thapar and Michael E Goddard and John S. Witte and Devin M Absher and Ingrid Agartz and Huda Akil and Farooq Amin and Ole Andreas Andreassen and Adebayo Anjorin and Richard J. L. Anney and Verneri Anttila and Dan E. Arking and Philip Asherson and Maria Helena Pinto Azevedo and Lena Backlund and Judith A. Badner and Anthony J. Bailey and Tobias Banaschewski and Jack D. Barchas and Michael R. Barnes and Thomas B. Barrett and Nicholas J Bass and Agatino Battaglia and Michael Bauer and M{\'o}nica Bay{\'e}s and Frank Bellivier and Sarah L Bergen and Wade H. Berrettini and Catalina Betancur and Thomas Bettecken and Joseph Biederman and Elisabeth B. Binder and Donald W. Black and Douglas H.R. Blackwood and Cinnamon S. Bloss and Michael Boehnke and Dorret I. Boomsma and Gerome D. Breen and Ren{\'e} Breuer and Richard Bruggeman and Paul Cormican and Nancy G. Buccola and Jan K. Buitelaar and William E. Bunney and Joseph D. Buxbaum and William Byerley and Enda M. Byrne and Sian Caesar and Wiepke Cahn and Rita M. Cantor and Miguel Casas and Aravinda Chakravarti and Kimberly Chambert and Khalid Choudhury and Sven Cichon and Claude Robert Cloninger and David A. Collier and Edwin H. Cook and Hilary Coon and Bru Cormand and Aiden P. Corvin and William H Coryell and David W. Craig and Ian W. Craig and Jennifer Crosbie and Michael L Cuccaro and David Curtis and Darina Czamara and Susmita Datta and Geraldine Dawson and Richard Day and Eco J. C. de Geus and Franziska Degenhardt and Srdjan Djurovic and Gary Donohoe and Alysa E. Doyle and Jubao Duan and Frank Dudbridge and Eftichia Duketis and Richard P. Ebstein and Howard J. Edenberg and Josephine Elia and Sean Ennis and Bruno {\'E}tain and Ayman H. Fanous and Anne Farmer and I. Nicol Ferrier and Matthew Flickinger and Eric Fombonne and Tatiana M. Foroud and Josef Frank and Barbara Franke and Christine Fraser and Robert Freedman and Nelson B. Freimer and Christine M. Freitag and Marion Friedl and Louise Fris{\'e}n and Louise Gallagher and Pablo V. Gejman and Lyudmila Georgieva and Elliot S. Gershon and Daniel H. Geschwind and Ina Giegling and Michael Gill and Scott D. Gordon and Katherine Gordon-Smith and Elaine K Green and Tiffany A. Greenwood and Dorothy E. Grice and Magdalena Gross and Detelina Grozeva and Weihua Guan and Hugh M D Gurling and Lieuwe de Haan and Jonathan L. Haines and Hakon Hakonarson and Joachim Hallmayer and Steven P. Hamilton and Marian L. Hamshere and Thomas Folkmann Hansen and Annette M. Hartmann and Martin Hautzinger and Andrew C. Heath and Anjali K. Henders and Stefan Herms and Ian B. Hickie and Maria Mananita S Hipolito and Susanne Hoefels and Peter A Holmans and Florian Holsboer and Witte J. G. Hoogendijk and Jouke- Jan Hottenga and Christina M. Hultman and Vanessa Hus and Andr{\'e}s Ingason and Marcus Ising and Stéphane Jamain and Edward G. Jones and Ian R Jones and Lisa A. Jones and Jung‐Ying Tzeng and Anna K. K{\"a}hler and Ren{\'e} S. Kahn and Radhika Kandaswamy and Matthew C. Keller and James L. Kennedy and Elaine Kenny and Lindsey Kent and Yunjung Kim and George Kirov and Sabine M Klauck and Lambertus Klei and James A. Knowles and Martin A. Kohli and Daniel L. Koller and Bettina Konte and Ania Korszun and Lydia Krabbendam and Robert Krasucki and Jonna Kuntsi and Phoenix Kwan and Mika{\'e}l Land{\'e}n and Niklas L{\aa}ngstr{\"o}m and Mark G. Lathrop and Jacob Lawrence and William B Lawson and Marion Leboyer and David H. Ledbetter and Phil H. Lee and Todd Lencz and Klaus-Peter Lesch and Douglas F. Levinson and Cathryn M. Lewis and Jun Z. Li and Paul Lichtenstein and Jeffrey A. Lieberman and D. Y. Lin and Don H. Linszen and Chunyu Liu and Falk W. Lohoff and Sandra K. Loo and Catherine Lord and Jennifer K. Lowe and Susanne Lucae and Donald J. Macintyre and Pamela A. F. Madden and Elena Maestrini and Patrik K. E. Magnusson and Pamela B. Mahon and Wolfgang Maier and Anil K. Malhotra and Shrikant M. Mane and Christa Lese Martin and Nicholas G. Martin and Manuel Mattheisen and Keith Matthews and Morten Mattingsdal and Steven Mccarroll and Kevin A. McGhee and James J. McGough and Patrick J. McGrath and Peter McGuffin and Melvin G. McInnis and Andrew M. McIntosh and Rebecca McKinney and Alan McLean and Francis J. McMahon and William M. McMahon and Andrew McQuillin and Helena Medeiros and Sarah E. Medland and Sandra M. Meier and Ingrid Melle and Fan Meng and Jobst Meyer and Christel M. Middeldorp and Lefkos T. Middleton and Vihra Milanova and Ana Miranda and Anthony P. Monaco and Grant W. Montgomery and Jennifer L. Moran and Daniel Moreno-De-Luca and Gunnar Morken and Derek W. Morris and Eric M. Morrow and Valentina Moskvina and Pierandrea Muglia and Thomas W. M{\"u}hleisen and Walter J. Muir and Bertram M{\"u}ller-Myhsok and Michael T. Murtha and Richard M. Myers and Inez Myin-Germeys and Michael C. Neale and Stanley F. Nelson and Caroline M. Nievergelt and Ivan Nikolov and Vishwajit L. Nimgaonkar and Willem A. Nolen and Markus M. N{\"o}then and John I. Nurnberger and Evaristus A. Nwulia and Dale R. Nyholt and Colm O'Dushlaine and Robert D. Oades and Ann Olincy and Guiomar Oliveira and Line Olsen and Roel A. Ophoff and Urban Osby and Michael J. Owen and Aarno Palotie and Jeremy R Parr and Andrew D. Paterson and Carlos N. Pato and Michele T. Pato and Brenda W.J.H. Penninx and Michele L. Pergadia and Margaret A. Pericak-Vance and Ben S. Pickard and Jonathan Pimm and Joseph Piven and Danielle Posthuma and James B. Potash and Fritz Poustka and P. Propping and Vinay Puri and Digby J. Quested and Emma M. Quinn and Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga and Henrik Berg Rasmussen and Soumya Raychaudhuri and Karola Rehnstr{\"o}m and Andreas Reif and Marta Ribas{\'e}s and John P. Rice and Marcella Rietschel and Kathryn Roeder and Herbert Roeyers and Lizzy Rossin and Aribert Rothenberger and Guy A. Rouleau and Douglas M. Ruderfer and Dan Rujescu and Alan R. Sanders and Stephan J Sanders and Susan L Santangelo and Joseph A. Sergeant and Russell J. Schachar and Martin Schalling and Alan F. Schatzberg and William A. Scheftner and Gerard D. Schellenberg and Stephen W. Scherer and Nicholas J. Schork and Thomas G. Schulze and Johannes Schumacher and Markus J. Schwarz and Edward M. Scolnick and Laura J. Scott and Jianxin Shi and Paul D. Shilling and Stanley I. Shyn and Jeremy Silverman and Susan L. Slager and Susan Smalley and Johannes H. Smit and Erin N. Smith and Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke and David St. Clair and Matthew W. State and Michael Steffens and Hans Christoph Steinhausen and John Strauss and Jana Strohmaier and T. Scott Stroup and James S. Sutcliffe and Peter Szatmari and Szabocls Szelinger and Srinivasa Thirumalai and Robert C. Thompson and Alexandre A. Todorov and Federica Tozzi and Jens Treutlein and Manfred Uhr and Edwin J.C.G. van den Oord and Gerard van Grootheest and Jim van os and Astrid Moura Vicente and Veronica J. Vieland and John B. Vincent and Peter M. Visscher and Christopher A. Walsh and Thomas H. Wassink and Stanley J. Watson and Myrna M. Weissman and Thomas M. Werge and Thomas F. Wienker and Ellen M. Wijsman and Gonneke Willemsen and Nigel Melvillle Williams and A. Jeremy Willsey and Stephanie H. Witt and Wei Xu and Allan H. Young and Timothy W. Yu and Stanley Zammit and Peter P. Zandi and Peng Zhang and Frans G Zitman and Sebastian Z{\"o}llner and Bernie Devlin and John R. Kelsoe and Pamela Sklar and Mark J. Daly and Michael C. O’Donovan and Nick Craddock and Patrick F. Sullivan and Jordan W. Smoller and Kenneth S. Kendler and Naomi R. Wray},
  journal={Nature Genetics},
  year={2013},
  volume={45},
  pages={984-994}
}
Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. [] Key Method To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17–29% of…

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