PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES To describe for oncology nurses the clinical implications of genetic predisposition testing for alterations in cancer susceptibility genes. DATA SOURCES Published research and educational manuscripts, books, conference proceedings, and personal experiences. DATA SYNTHESIS Genetic predisposition testing for inherited cancer risk has profound clinical implications that eventually will affect all areas of nursing practice. The provision of genetic information raises issues about cancer risk management, psychosocial sequelae, and legal and professional liability. CONCLUSION Most healthcare professionals, including nurses, are not adequately prepared to manage the issues resulting from genetic predisposition testing. Furthermore, little data are available to guide practice. Unique educational strategies are needed to prepare providers in this practice arena. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE Genetic predisposition testing is becoming more common in general oncology and primary care communities. Nurses will play a major role in the support, counseling, education, informed consent, and follow-up care of individuals who are considering undergoing or who have undergone testing. To meet the needs of patients and their families, oncology nurses must prepare themselves for this new area of practice.