Understanding genetic connectivity is fundamental for ecosystem-based management of marine resources. Here we investigate the metapopulation structure of the edible sea cucumber Holothuria edulis Lesson, 1830 across Okinawa Island, Japan. This species is of economic and ecological importance and is distributed from the Red Sea to Hawai‘i. We examined sequence variation in fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and nuclear histone (H3) at six locations across Okinawa Island. We found higher haplotype diversity for mtDNA (COI: Hd = 0.69 and 16S: Hd = 0.67) and higher heterozygosity of nDNA (H3: H E = 0.39) in populations from the west coast of Okinawa compared to individuals from populations on the east coast (COI: Hd = 0.40; 16S: Hd = 0.21; H3: H E = 0.14). Overall population structure was significant (AMOVA results for COI: Φ ST = 0.49, P < 0.0001; 16S: Φ ST = 0.34, P < 0.0001; H3: Φ ST = 0.12, P < 0.0001). One population in the east, Uruma, showed elevated pairwise Φ ST values in comparisons with all other sites and a marked reduction of genetic diversity (COI: Hd = 0.25 and 16S: Hd = 0.24), possibly as a consequence of a shift to a more dominant asexual reproduction mode. Recent reports have indicated that coastal development in this area influences many marine organisms, and ecosystem degradation in this location could cause the observed decrease of genetic diversity and isolation of H. edulis in Uruma. Our study should provide valuable data to help with the urgently needed management of sea cucumber populations in Okinawa, and indicates particular attention needs to be paid to vulnerable locations.