Genetic polymorphism across regions of the three open reading frames of “Norwalk-like viruses”

@article{Vinj2000GeneticPA,
  title={Genetic polymorphism across regions of the three open reading frames of “Norwalk-like viruses”},
  author={Jan Vinj{\'e} and J. Green and D. Lewis and Chris I. Gallimore and D. W. G. Brown and Marion P. G. Koopmans},
  journal={Archives of Virology},
  year={2000},
  volume={145},
  pages={223-241}
}
Summary. Genomic characterization of Norwalk-like human caliciviruses (NLVs) originating from outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis has revealed surprisingly high levels of diversity, even in the RNA polymerase gene, which is anticipated to be highly conserved. Since information on antigenic relationship is limited, due to the lack of a tissue culture system for these viruses, strains mostly are described on the basis of their genetic relatedness. However, the lack of uniformly… 

Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of 18 Norwalk-like viruses.

TLDR
The clustering based on the capsid N/S domain successfully distinguished the NLV as well as the groupingbased on the antigenicity, as determined by both antigen and antibody ELISAs with recombinant virus-like particles.

Murine Noroviruses Comprising a Single Genogroup Exhibit Biological Diversity despite Limited Sequence Divergence

TLDR
The isolation and characterization of multiple MNV strains illustrate how genetic analysis may underestimate the biological diversity of noroviruses and provide a molecular map for future studies of MNV biology.

Genetic Analysis of the Capsid Gene of Genotype GII.2 Noroviruses

TLDR
Analysis of the complete capsid gene of NoV strains belonging to the less prevalent genotype GII.2 suggests changes were induced by selective pressure, driving virus evolution, suggesting differences in behavior with recombinant strains.

Characterization of New Recombinant Noroviruses

TLDR
The results suggest that recombination is not a rare phenomenon among noroviruses, but not all these presumed recombinants that formed during RNA replication are able to spread widely.

Analysis of Amino Acid Variation in the P2 Domain of the GII-4 Norovirus VP1 Protein Reveals Putative Variant-Specific Epitopes

TLDR
The diversity of amino acid sequences of the highly variable P2 region in the major capsid protein, VP1, of the GII-4 human noroviruses strains are described using sequence analysis and homology modelling techniques and suggest that norovirus follow a neutral network pattern of evolution.

Simultaneous Detection and Genotyping of “Norwalk-Like Viruses” by Oligonucleotide Array in a Reverse Line Blot Hybridization Format

TLDR
A novel method, which allows simultaneous detection and genotyping of NLVs, is useful in the diagnosis and typing ofNLVs obtained from outbreaks and in large-scale epidemiological studies.

Recombination within the Pandemic Norovirus GII.4 Lineage

TLDR
It is shown that recombination contributed to the emergence of the recent pandemic GII.4 variant, termed Sydney 2012, and proposed that guidelines be applied for identifying NoV recombinants.

Norovirus Recombination in ORF1/ORF2 Overlap

TLDR
Evidence is provided to support the theory of the role of subgenomic RNA promoters as recombination hotspots and a simple mechanism of how recombination might occur in NoV is described.

Molecular Epidemiology of Caliciviruses Causing Outbreaks and Sporadic Cases of Acute Gastroenteritis in Spain

TLDR
Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) were the most common cause of the gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated here, and the nucleotide sequence of part of the capsid gene (ORF2) from three of these strains demonstrated their relationship with Mexico virus.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 37 REFERENCES

Molecular characterization and expression of the capsid protein of a Norwalk-like virus recovered from a Desert Shield troop with gastroenteritis.

TLDR
Immunoprecipitation studies and sequence analysis indicated the presence of shared antigenic sites between the capsid proteins of DSV395 and NV, however, hyperimmune sera specific for the self-assembled recombinant NV capsid protein did not react with DSV stool antigen in an ELISA, suggesting that there may also be unique antigenic Sites not shared between DSV 395 and NV.

Molecular characterization of Hawaii virus and other Norwalk-like viruses: evidence for genetic polymorphism among human caliciviruses.

TLDR
Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the capsid protein of HV with NV and other human caliciviruses demonstrated the existence of two major genetic groups (genogroups) typified by HV and NV, and showed that there were these two genogroups.

Human calicivirus genogroup II capsid sequence diversity revealed by analyses of the prototype Snow Mountain agent

TLDR
It is shown that the capsid proteins of OTH-25 and SMA are more distinct than was predicted by homology in the RNA polymerase, suggesting that recombination has occurred within this group of viruses.

Norwalk-like viruses: demonstration of genomic diversity by polymerase chain reaction

TLDR
Evidence of a genomic relationship between Norwalk virus and serotype UK2 small round-structured viruses is provided, suggesting that viruses closely related to Norwalkirus have not been circulating widely in the United Kingdom in recent years.

Human enteric Caliciviridae: a new prevalent small round-structured virus group defined by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and capsid diversity.

TLDR
Computer analyses indicated that these viruses can be divided into two discrete groups, and sequence comparison of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of small round-structured viruses (SRSVs) revealed significant genetic variation.

Sequence and genome organization of a human small round-structured (Norwalk-like) virus.

TLDR
The complete genomic nucleotide sequence of an SRSV, Southampton virus, was determined and it was found that the 7696-nucleotide RNA genome encodes three open reading frames whose sequences and organization strongly support proposals that SRVSs are members of the Caliciviridae.

Expression and Self-Assembly of Grimsby Virus: Antigenic Distinction from Norwalk and Mexico Viruses

TLDR
The expression of the GRV capsid protein has allowed the antigenic comparison of three distinct recombinant Norwalk-like viruses for the first time, revealing that GRV is antigenically distinct from both NV and MXV.

Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus.

TLDR
The morphology, size, polarity, and genomic organization of the Norwalk virus indicate it is a member of the Caliciviridae family.

Application of PCR to detect Norwalk virus in fecal specimens from outbreaks of gastroenteritis

TLDR
The successful application of RT-PCR to investigations of outbreaks of suspected NV-associated gastroenteritis will depend on the use of either multiple primer pairs or primers made against regions of the genome that are more conserved.