Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia

@article{Reich2010GeneticHO,
  title={Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia},
  author={David Reich and Richard E. Green and Martin Kircher and Johannes Krause and Nick J. Patterson and Eric Durand and Bence Viola and Adrian W. Briggs and Udo Stenzel and Philip L. F. Johnson and Tomislav Maricic and Jeffrey Martin Good and Tom{\`a}s Marqu{\`e}s-Bonet and Can Alkan and Qiaomei Fu and Swapan Mallick and Heng Li and Matthias Meyer and Evan E. Eichler and Mark Stoneking and Mike Richards and Sahra Talamo and Michael V. Shunkov and Anatoli P. Derevianko and Jean‐Jacques Hublin and Janet Kelso and Montgomery Slatkin and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2010},
  volume={468},
  pages={1053-1060}
}
Using DNA extracted from a finger bone found in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia, we have sequenced the genome of an archaic hominin to about 1.9-fold coverage. This individual is from a group that shares a common origin with Neanderthals. This population was not involved in the putative gene flow from Neanderthals into Eurasians; however, the data suggest that it contributed 4–6% of its genetic material to the genomes of present-day Melanesians. We designate this hominin population… 
Archaic humans: Four makes a party
TLDR
The high-quality Neanderthal genome sequence determined from a circa 50,000-year-old toe bone a proximal toe phalanx excavated from the east gallery of Denisova Cave is that of a Neanderthal woman whose parents were closely related perhaps half-siblings or uncle and niece, suggesting inbreeding was also common among her recent ancestors.
Homo sapiens in the Eastern Asian Late Pleistocene
TLDR
The study reveals that despite having similar chronologies, not all the samples present the same suite of derived traits and may reflect complex demographic dynamics with several migrations and dispersals and/or a degree of population substructure similar to that described for the African continent.
The complete genome sequence of a Neandertal from the Altai Mountains
TLDR
It is shown that interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene and a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans is established.
Human origins: Shadows of early migrations
TLDR
The genome of a female archaic hominin from Denisova Cave in southern Siberia has now been sequenced from DNA extracted from a finger bone and the morphology of a tooth with a mitochondrial genome very similar to that of the finger bone suggests that these hominins are evolutionarily distinct from both Neanderthals and modern humans.
Identification of a new hominin bone from Denisova Cave, Siberia using collagen fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA analysis
TLDR
The huge potential collagen fingerprinting has for identifying hominin remains in highly fragmentary archaeological assemblages is demonstrated, improving the resources available for wider studies into human evolution.
DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China
TLDR
The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans.
Multiple Deeply Divergent Denisovan Ancestries in Papuans
Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals
TLDR
It is concluded that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.
An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor
TLDR
DNA from a 37,000–42,000-year-old modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania is analysed, finding that on the order of 6–9% of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date.
A fourth Denisovan individual
TLDR
The view that Denisovans were likely to have been present in the vicinity of Denisova Cave over an extended time period is reinforced, and it is shown that the level of nuclear DNA sequence diversity found among Denisovan is within the lower range of that of present-day human populations.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 144 REFERENCES
The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia
TLDR
A complete mitochondrial DNA sequence retrieved from a bone excavated in 2008 in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia represents a hitherto unknown type of hominin mtDNA that shares a common ancestor with anatomically modern human and Neanderthal mtDNAs about 1.0 million years ago.
Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia
TLDR
To determine how far to the east Neanderthals ranged, mtDNA sequences from hominid remains found in Uzbekistan and in the Altai region of southern Siberia are determined and it is shown that the DNA sequences from these fossils fall within the European Neanderthal mtDNA variation.
The origin of Neandertals
  • J. Hublin
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2009
TLDR
The term “Homo rhodesiensis” is proposed to be used to designate the large-brained hominins ancestral to H. sapiens in Africa and at the root of the Neandertals in Europe, and the term ‘Homo neanderthalensis’ to designate all of the specimens carrying derived metrical or non-metrical features used in the definition of the LP NeandERTals.
A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia
TLDR
The discovery of an adult hominin with stature and endocranial volume equal to the smallest-known australopithecines is reported, from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia, and shows that the genus Homo is morphologically more varied and flexible in its adaptive responses than previously thought.
Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia
TLDR
Dating by radiocarbon, luminescence, uranium-series and electron spin resonance methods indicates that H. floresiensis existed from before 38,000 years ago (kyr) until at least 18 kyr, and originated from an early dispersal of Homo erectus that reached Flores and then survived on this island refuge until relatively recently.
Brief communication: paleoanthropology and the population genetics of ancient genes.
TLDR
The geologic, archaeological, and dating evidence shows the Mezmaiskaya cave infant to be a burial from a level even more recent than the Upper Paleolithic preserved at the site, and its anatomy does not contradict the assessment that the Mezachenko cave infant is not a Neandertal.
New hominin remains from Uzbekistan.
A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome
TLDR
The genomic data suggest that Neandertals mixed with modern human ancestors some 120,000 years ago, leaving traces of Ne andertal DNA in contemporary humans, suggesting that gene flow from Neand Bertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
Denisova Cave, Peştera cu Oase, and Human Divergence in the Late Pleistocene
TLDR
Assessment of the Oase 2 early modern human maxillary molars, using the same logic as Krause et al., suggests that its lineage was even more divergent.
...
...