Linkage studies have defined susceptibility regions for late-onset Parkinson disease (PD) on chromosomes 1 and 2, but specific genetic variants have not been definitively identified. Here we report the results of a case-control study to identify disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these loci. In the initial phase of our study, we genotyped two putative functional SNPs in ubiquitin-specific protease 24 (USP24), a biological candidate gene within the chromosome 1 linkage region, and scanned the chromosome 2 linkage peak with 43 SNPs in a sample set of 224 PD cases and 186 matched controls. Both USP24 SNPs were significantly associated with disease risk (p = 0.0037 for rs1165222:T > C, p.Thr195ILe, and p = 0.037 for rs13312:C > G, a SNP in the 3'-untranslated region), and one marker, rs1048603:C > T, p.Arg1123Cys, in USP40 was significant from the chromosome 2 scan (p = 0.038). Further genotyping of the region surrounding these initial markers led us to identify 19 additional SNPs with strong disease association. In the second phase, we genotyped the 22 significant markers in an additional 110 cases and 162 controls, which together with part of the initial sample set (201 cases and 149 controls) constitute an expanded sample set of 311 age- and gender-matched case-control pairs. Twenty-one markers were significant in the expanded sample set (most significant allelic p-value: 0.0006 for rs287235:C > G on chromosome 1, and 0.005 for rs838552:T > C on chromosome 2), and six SNPs in USP24 remained significant after conservatively adjusting for testing 27 markers (pBonferroni = 0.017-0.049). It is unlikely that population stratification contributed to this finding, as population stratification was undetectable in our sample set using 78 null markers. Our data suggest that genetic variants in USP24 and USP40 affect the risk for late-onset PD, which is consistent with the predicted role of the ubiquitination pathway in PD etiology.