Genetic evidence for mixed parentage in nests of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae)

@article{Taylor2000GeneticEF,
  title={Genetic evidence for mixed parentage in nests of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae)},
  author={Emma L. Taylor and Dominique Blache and David Groth and John D. Wetherall and Graeme B. Martin},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2000},
  volume={47},
  pages={359-364}
}
Abstract Parentage in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) was examined by microsatellite analysis using four independent loci. Of 106 chicks sampled in one breeding season from 18 nests, 54 (51%) were not fathered by the nesting male, 12 (11%) were not from the observed mate of the sitting male, and 9 (8%) represented intra-specific brood parasitism, having no alleles in common with either nest parent. Some males (11%) fathered all chicks in their nests, but the majority showed high levels of… 
A molecular genetic analysis of the communal nesting of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)
TLDR
Microsatellite markers were used to analyse the parentage of communal nests in Nairobi National Park and revealed that major females contributed a disproportionate number of fertile eggs to the central, incubated clutch and that multiple paternity and maternity within a nest were common.
Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in wild and farmed Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).
TLDR
A preliminary study of genetic variation in emus undertaken by typing birds from five farms and two natural populations at five polymorphic microsatellite loci found genetic diversity was high for all populations and there was little evidence of inbreeding.
Do male golden egg bugs carry eggs they have fertilized? A microsatellite analysis
TLDR
This first genetic study on the breeding system of the golden egg bugs did not find any support for the claim that egg carrying functioned as paternal care, nor did it support kin selection as explanation for conspecific egg carrying.
Genetic evidence for promiscuity in the Ornate Tinamou Nothoprocta ornata (Aves: Tinamiformes)
TLDR
The optimal model with polygynous males and polyandrous females prevails as an evolutionary stable strategy among tinamous, even in different social mating systems and despite high levels of cuckoldry.
High frequency of polyandry in a lek mating system
TLDR
The frequencies of polyandrous mating and multiple paternity in the ruff, a lekking shorebird with a genetic dimorphism in male mating behavior, are determined and active genetic diversification may apply with respect to the behavioral polymorphism.
Fertile period and clutch size in the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae)
TLDR
Female Emus lay fertilised eggs for a prolonged time following an insemination, but their fertile period appears to be shorter than the period over which the clutch is laid.
Mitochondrial DNA variations in Japanese farmed emu populations
TLDR
The haplotype composition of mitochondrial DNA among emu populations farmed in Japan detected four substitution sites and three haplotypes (Hap-a, -b, and -c), which may contribute to conserving the genetic resources available for the Japanese emu industry.
Independent evolutionary reductions of the phallus in basal birds
TLDR
The findings provide evidence against the hypothesis that the phallus in birds is maintained to insure paternity in taxa with exclusive male parental care, since both groups wherephallus reduction is reported provide predominately male-only care.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Paternity and paternity assurance behaviour in the bluethroat, Luscinias.svecica
TLDR
Male bluethroats apparently use mate guarding and not song as their primary paternity guard, and data indicated that, during the fertile period, there were more intrusions in territories with extra-pair offspring than in Territories with only legitimate offspring.
Social Mating System and Sexual Behaviour in Captive Emus Dromaius novaehollandiae
TLDR
The social mating system of the emu is of a monogamous type but a few individuals are promiscuous—the males before they start incubating, and the females after their mate has started incubating.
Paternal investment inversely related to degree of extra-pair paternity in the reed bunting
TLDR
An exceptionally high proportion of extra-pair paternity is found in a wild population of reed buntings using single-locus DNA fingerprinting and it is proposed that males can assess their likelihood of paternity and adjust their nestling provisioning rates accordingly.
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers reveal extra‐pair parentage in a bird species: the bluethroat (Luscinia svecica)
TLDR
This study shows that dominant AFLP markers can be useful for studying the mating system of taxa for which no microsatellite primers are available and allows the approximate estimation of parentage exclusions despite the fact that it is not possible to know which parent has to be excluded.
The mating systems of ratites and tinamous: an evolutionary perspective
TLDR
It is shown that these birds are very little known, in the main, and urged that caution be exercised in the use of what information is available, and an interpretation of parental care and pair-bond patterns in these birds is offered.
Density and extra-pair fertilizations in birds: a comparative analysis
TLDR
Comparisons among species revealed no evidence that EPF frequencies correlated with nesting dispersion, local breeding density, or (3) breeding synchrony, even when each of these variables in turn was held constant and phylogenetic relationships were taken into account via contrast analyses.
The Mating System of Free-living Emus
TLDR
Observations on an introduced but free-ranging population of emus at Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve in the Australian Capital Territory suggest that there is no simple correlation between habitat and mating system in ratites, and the resolution of the complex conflicts of interest between the sexes appears to determine the predominant mating systems exhibited by a species.
Nestling Hunger And Parental Care In Red-Winged Blackbirds
TLDR
Hat polygynous male Red-winged Blackbirds may be withholding parental care at one nest in order to protect paternity at another nest, and changes in female provisioning rate were associated with changes in foraging habitat and volume of prey delivered to nestlings.
...
...