Genetic evidence for Near-Eastern origins of European cattle

@article{Troy2001GeneticEF,
  title={Genetic evidence for Near-Eastern origins of European cattle},
  author={C S Troy and David Evan MacHugh and Jillian F. Bailey and David A. Magee and Ronan T. Loftus and Patrick Cunningham and Andrew T. Chamberlain and Bryan C. Sykes and Daniel G. Bradley},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2001},
  volume={410},
  pages={1088-1091}
}
The limited ranges of the wild progenitors of many of the primary European domestic species point to their origins further east in Anatolia or the fertile crescent. The wild ox (Bos primigenius), however, ranged widely and it is unknown whether it was domesticated within Europe as one feature of a local contribution to the farming economy. Here we examine mitochondrial DNA control-region sequence variation from 392 extant animals sampled from Europe, Africa and the Near East, and compare this… 

The origin of European cattle: evidence from modern and ancient DNA.

Previously undescribed genetic evidence is presented in contrast with this view based on mtDNA sequences from five Italian aurochsen dated between 7,000 and 17,000 years B.P. and >1,000 modern cattle from 51 breeds to suggest the European cattle may represent a more variable and valuable genetic resource than previously realized.

The genetic prehistory of domesticated cattle from their origin to the spread across Europe

BackgroundCattle domestication started in the 9th millennium BC in Southwest Asia. Domesticated cattle were then introduced into Europe during the Neolithic transition. However, the scarcity of

Genetic signatures of a Mediterranean influence in Iberian Peninsula sheep husbandry.

A broad north-south pattern describes the most important trend in the Portuguese sheep population with a southern population clearly distinct from most other breeds, and a recurrent influx of new genetic diversity, probably via the Mediterranean Sea, may explain these patterns and appears to corroborate the importance of this maritime route in the history of both mankind and livestock.

Cytochrome b sequences of ancient cattle and wild ox support phylogenetic complexity in the ancient and modern bovine populations.

The outlying status of the novel Q and E haplogroups and the modern P haplogroup sequence as a descendent of European aurochs is confirmed by retrieval and analysis of cytochrome b sequence data from twenty ancient wild and domesticated cattle archaeological samples.

Genetic diversity of donkey populations from the putative centers of domestication.

The results support previously proposed northeast Africa as a putative center of origin for the domestic donkey, but the high levels of unique diversity in Yemen opens the possibility of considering this region as yet another center oforigin for this species.

Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse

The extensive genetic diversity of these 77 ancestral mares leads us to conclude that several distinct horse populations were involved in the domestication of the horse.

Tracing the history of goat pastoralism: new clues from mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA in North Africa.

The first study combining results from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome loci for the genetic characterization of a domestic goat population indicates a remarkably high diversity of maternal and paternal lineages in a sample of indigenous goats from the northwestern fringe of the African continent.

Ancient DNA as a Means to Investigate the European Neolithic

interpretation of the processes responsible for current domestic haplogroup frequencies should be carried out with caution if based only on contemporary data because they do not only tell their own story, but also that of humans.

Cattle domestication in the Near East was followed by hybridization with aurochs bulls in Europe

The data suggest that the origin of domestic cattle may be far more complex than previously thought, and is more similar to haplotypes from ancient specimens of European aurochsen than to contemporary cattle breeds from southern Europe and the Near East.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 36 REFERENCES

Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and European cattle.

The nature of domestic cattle origins in Africa are unclear as archaeological data are relatively sparse. The earliest domesticates were humpless, or Bos taurus, in morphology and may have shared a

Evidence for two independent domestications of cattle.

Application of a molecular clock suggests that the two major mtDNA clades diverged at least 200,000, and possibly as much as 1 million, years ago, as evidence for two separate domestication events of different subspecies of the aurochs, Bos primigenius and Bos taurus.

The emerging tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: a synthesis of control-region sequences and RFLPs.

It is shown that the main indigenous North African cluster is a sister group to the most ancient cluster of European mtDNAs, from which it diverged approximately 50,000 years ago.

Mitochondrial sequence variation suggests an African influence in Portuguese cattle

Here, the majority of sequences of African type were encountered in three southern, as compared to three northern breeds, a pattern of African influence that may reflect an intercontinental admixture in the initial origins of Iberian breeds.

Ancient DNA suggests a recent expansion of European cattle from a diverse wild progenitor species

Analysis of the extant data in the light of the ancient DNA results suggests that a degree of Pleistocene diversity survives in the extant European Bos population that is mainly derived from a more recent population expansion.

Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA in western Europe

A cladistic notation for mitochondrial variation is described and analysis is expanded upon to present a more detailed portrait of the European mitochondrial record, suggesting that most extant mitochondrial sequences in western Europe have a local ancestry in the Early Upper Palaeolithic.

Early medieval cattle remains from a Scandinavian settlement in Dublin: genetic analysis and comparison with extant breeds.

The presence of a putative ancestral sequence at high frequency in the medieval population supports an early post-domestication expansion of cattle in Europe.

EXCEPTIONAL FOSSIL MATERIAL OF A SEMI-AQUATIC REPTILE FROM CHINA: THE RESOLUTION OF AN ENIGMA

The newly recovered Monjurosuchus specimens from western Liaoning show unique integumentary structures of this aquatic reptile for the first time, providing important new information on the soft anatomy and lifestyle of choristoderes.

Why hunter-gatherer populations do not show signs of pleistocene demographic expansions.

  • L. ExcoffierS. Schneider
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1999
A multivariate analysis of the genetic distances among 61 populations reveals that populations that did not undergo demographic expansions show increased genetic distances from other populations, confirming that the demography of the populations strongly affects observed genetic affinities.

Nabta Playa and Its Role in Northeastern African Prehistory

Abstract Nabta Playa basin offers an unprecedented longitudinal view on the emergence, consolidation and complexification on human–livestock relationships, from the early stage of the Early Holocene