The structure of Khakass gene pool has been investigated: Y-chromosome haplogroup compositions and frequencies were described in seven population samples of two basic subethnic groups, Sagai and Kachins, from three geographically separated regions of the Khakass Republic. Eight haplogroups were detected in the Khakass gene pool: C3, E, N*, N1b, N1c, R1a1a, and R1b1b1. The haplogroup spectra and the genetic diversity by haplogroups and YSTR haplotypes differed significantly between Sagai and Kachins. Kachins had a low level of gene diversity, whereas the diversity of Sagai was similar to that of other South-Siberian ethnic groups. Sagai samples from the Askizskii district were very similar to each other, and so were two Kachin samples from the Shirinskii district, while Sagai samples from the Tashtypskii district differed considerably from each other. The contribution of intergroup differences among ethnic groups was high, indicating significant genetic differentiation among native populations in Khakassia. The Khakass gene pool was strongly differentiated both by haplogroup frequencies and by YSTR haplotypes within the N1b haplogroup. The frequencies of YSTR haplotypes within the chromosome Y haplogroups N1b, N1c, and R1a1 were determined and their molecular phylogeny was investigated. Factor and cluster analysis, as well as AMOVA, suggest that the Khakass gene pool is structured by territory and subethnic groups.