Novel exchangeable effector loci associated with the Pseudomonas syringae hrp pathogenicity island: evidence for integron-like assembly from transposed gene cassettes.
To determine genetic relationships within and between two pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, strains typical of P. syringae pv. tomato (P. s. tomato) and selected strains of P. syringae pv. syringae (P. s. syringae) were characterized by three methods. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that strains of P. s. tomato and P. s. syringae were, respectively, 86-100% and 37-47% homologous to DNA from a P. s. tomato reference strain when tested under stringent conditions. An analysis of electrophoretic variation in enzymes encoded by 26 loci placed 17 P. s. tomato strains studied in a group of four electrophoretic types, and these strains had a mean genetic diversity per locus of 0.076. Six P. s. syringae strains formed a second group of six electrophoretic types, which had a higher mean genetic diversity per locus of 0.479. The mean genetic distance separating P. s. tomato from P. s. syringae (D = 0.94) was unexpectedly large for strains of a single species. An analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) with three cloned hybridization probes demonstrated that each of the P. s. tomato and P. s. syringae strains was unique. A method was developed to quantify the RFLP difference between pairs of strains, and cluster analysis revealed relationships among P. s. tomato, but not among P. s. syringae, that were similar to those based on enzyme polymorphisms. Implications of these findings for bacterial systematics and epidemiology are discussed.