Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control seed oil content and fatty acid composition were studied using a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between the Arabidopsis ecotypes Landsberg erecta and Cape Verdi Islands. Multiple QTL model mapping identified two major and two minor QTL that account for 43% of the variation in oil content in the population. The most significant QTL is at the bottom of chromosome 2 and accounts for 17% of the genetic variation. Two other significant QTL, located on the upper and lower arms of chromosome 1, account for a further 19% of the genetic variation. A QTL near to the top of chomosome 3 is epistatic to that on the upper arm of chromosome 1. There are strong QTL for linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acids contents that colocate with the FAD3 locus, another for oleic acid (18:1) that colocates with FAD2 and other less significant QTL for palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and eicosaenoic (20:1) acids. The presence of the QTL for seed oil content on chromosome 2 was confirmed by the generation of lines that contain a 22-cM region of Landsberg erecta DNA at the bottom of chromosome 2 in a background containing Cape Verdi Islands in other regions of the genome that had been shown to influence oil content in the QTL analysis.