Subtype analysis and mutations to antiviral drugs in HIV-1-infected patients from Mozambique before initiation of antiretroviral therapy: results from the DREAM programme.
To better understand the emergence of subtype C and its potential impact on vaccine efforts in Uganda, we have characterized subtype C sequences from Uganda (n = 13), Zimbabwe (n = 11), Mozambique (n = 5), South Africa (n = 4), and India (n = 3). Phylogenetic analysis of subtype C sequences in the env gp41 gene region revealed multiple subclusters within subtype C. Further, while most Ugandan specimen subclustered together, other subclusters did not reflect a clear geographic location. The nucleotide divergence within the Ugandan subset was 8.2% (6.1-9.8%) compared with 9.5% (2.5-15%) for the other subtype C gp41 sequences. The protein sequence alignment revealed marked sequence conservation of major immunodominant epitopes within the gp41 region.