Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping.
Fifty-six human and 24 adult dairy cattle isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from a single county in California were compared using ribotyping, insertion sequence typing (IS200), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, plasmid typing, phage typing, and antimicrobial resistance testing. The majority of the isolates fell into one of two groups which were phage types DT104 and DT193. Combining the information from all typing methods, a total of 45 different "clusters" were defined, with 35 of those including only a single isolate. The library of isolates had a high degree of variability, but antibiotic resistance and plasmid typing each defined single clusters in which human or bovine isolates predominated (chi2, P < 0.05).