Genetic and phenotypic overlap of specific obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactive subtypes with Tourette syndrome

@article{Hirschtritt2017GeneticAP,
  title={Genetic and phenotypic overlap of specific obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactive subtypes with Tourette syndrome},
  author={Matthew E. Hirschtritt and Sabrina Michelle Darrow and Cornelia L. Illmann and Lisa Osiecki and Marco A. Grados and Paul Sandor and Yves Dion and Robert A. King and David L. Pauls and Cathy L. Budman and Danielle C. Cath and Erica Greenberg and Gholson J. Lyon and D. Yu and Lauren M. McGrath and William M. McMahon and P. C. Lee and Kevin L. Delucchi and Jeremiah M. Scharf and Carol A. Mathews},
  journal={Psychological Medicine},
  year={2017},
  volume={48},
  pages={279 - 293}
}
Background The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families. Method OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class… 
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The past decade's literature is reviewed and a critical commentary on the involvement of immunological mechanisms in normal brain development, as well as its role in the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome, other Chronic tic disorders, and related neuropsychiatric disorders including Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
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