Genetic analysis of host resistance: Toll-like receptor signaling and immunity at large.

@article{Beutler2006GeneticAO,
  title={Genetic analysis of host resistance: Toll-like receptor signaling and immunity at large.},
  author={Bruce Beutler and Zhengfan Jiang and Philippe T Georgel and Karine Crozat and Ben A. Croker and Sophie Rutschmann and Xin Du and Kasper Hoebe},
  journal={Annual review of immunology},
  year={2006},
  volume={24},
  pages={
          353-89
        }
}
Classical genetic methods, driven by phenotype rather than hypotheses, generally permit the identification of all proteins that serve nonredundant functions in a defined biological process. Long before this goal is achieved, and sometimes at the very outset, genetics may cut to the heart of a biological puzzle. So it was in the field of mammalian innate immunity. The positional cloning of a spontaneous mutation that caused lipopolysaccharide resistance and susceptibility to Gram-negative… 

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