Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs

  title={Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs},
  author={Richard Frankham},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
  • R. Frankham
  • Published 1 January 2008
  • Biology
  • Molecular Ecology
As wild environments are often inhospitable, many species have to be captive‐bred to save them from extinction. In captivity, species adapt genetically to the captive environment and these genetic adaptations are overwhelmingly deleterious when populations are returned to wild environments. I review empirical evidence on (i) the genetic basis of adaptive changes in captivity, (ii) factors affecting the extent of genetic adaptation to captivity, and (iii) means for minimizing its deleterious… 

The efficiency of close inbreeding to reduce genetic adaptation to captivity

This work used quantitative genetic individual-based simulations to model the effect of genetic management on the evolution of a quantitative trait and the associated fitness of wild-born individuals that are brought to captivity and found that half-sib mating is more effective in reducing genetic adaptation to captivity than the gc/mc method.

Minimizing genetic adaptation in captive breeding programs: A review

Inbreeding and selection shape genomic diversity in captive populations: Implications for the conservation of endangered species

To better understand the evolutionary response of species bred in captivity, SNPs in populations of white-footed mice were used to measure the impact of breeding regimes on genomic diversity and genomic diversity was significantly related to fitness.

Genetic adaptation to captivity can occur in a single generation

It is demonstrated that a single generation in captivity can result in a substantial response to selection on traits that are beneficial in captivity but severely maladaptive in the wild.

The phenotypic costs of captivity.

With better use of monitoring and experimental reintroductions, a more robust evidence base should help inform adaptive management and minimise the phenotypic costs of captivity, improving the success of animal reintroductions.

Population correlates of rapid captive‐induced maladaptation in a wild fish

Trait values and lifetime success were highly variable across populations following one generation of captivity, suggesting that captivity generates maladaptation within one generation.

Genetic impacts of conservation management actions in a critically endangered parrot species

The study suggests that translocation of wild individuals into captivity, from wild populations in decline, can potentially have deleterious lasting impacts on genetic diversity levels in these populations, but also confirms that in captivity, founder diversity can be successfully preserved over time, and addition of wild founders can improve captive population health.

Evolution of Peromyscus leucopus Mice in Response to a Captive Environment

It is found that adaptation to captivity can be rapid, affecting reproductive patterns and behaviors, even under breeding protocols designed to minimize the rate of genetic change due to random drift and inadvertent selection.

A Conservation Hatchery Population of Delta Smelt Shows Evidence of Genetic Adaptation to Captivity After 9 Generations

It is suggested changes in fish rearing practices at the FCCL to reduce genetic adaptation to captivity, as delta smelt numbers in the wild continue to decline and the use of FCCL fish for reintroduction becomes more likely.



Modeling problems in conservation genetics using captive Drosophila populations: Rapid genetic adaptation to captivity

A framework for predicting the impact of factors on the rate of genetic adaptation to captivity is suggested and introduction of genes from the wild, increasing the generation interval, using captive environments close to those in the wild and achieving low mortality rates are all expected to slow genetic adaptations to captivity.

Delay of Adaptation to Captive Breeding by Equalizing Family Size

Most recommendations on the genetic management of captive populations have been concerned with the effects of genetic drift, and the size of an ideal population that has the same rate of increase in homozygosity or gene-frequency drift as the actual population under investigation is estimated.

Does equalization of family sizes reduce genetic adaptation to captivity?

Questions are raised about the ability of equalization of family sizes to reduce genetic deterioration that adversely affects reintroduction success for captive populations of endangered species.

Selection in captive populations

We have briefly reviewed types of genetic variation and selection in the wild as contrasted with selection in captive populations, along with the objectives of captive breeding programs, before

Rapid genetic deterioration in captive populations: Causes and conservation implications

Genetic deterioration incaptivity is likely to be a major problem when long-term captive bred populations ofangered species are returned to the wild and a regime involving fragmentation of captivepopulations of endangered species is suggested to minimize the problems.

Dynamics of genetic adaptation to captivity

Large captive populations of Drosophilamelanogaster were assessed for relative fitness under captive conditions for up to 87 generations in captivity, and it was found that very large genetic adaptations to captivity mayoccur under relatively benign captiveconditions.

Adaptations to Captivity in the Butterfly Pieris brassicae (L.) and the Implications for Ex situ Conservation

This work investigates six traits related to dispersal and reproduction in a culture of the large white butterfly Pieris brassicae, that had been captive for c.

Minimizing kinship in captive breeding programs

Minimizing kinship (MK), predicted to maximize the retention of gene diversity in pedigreed populations with unequal founder representation, is currently the best available for the genetic management of captive populations.

Genetic adaptation to captivity and inbreeding depression in small laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

The maintenance of captive populations under noncompetitive conditions can therefore be expected to minimize adaptive changes due to natural selection in the changed environment.

Limitations of Captive Breeding in Endangered Species Recovery

Captive breeding should be viewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments.