Genetic History of Xinjiang’s Uyghurs Suggests Bronze Age Multiple-Way Contacts in Eurasia

@article{Feng2017GeneticHO,
  title={Genetic History of Xinjiang’s Uyghurs Suggests Bronze Age Multiple-Way Contacts in Eurasia},
  author={Qidi Feng and Yan Lu and Xumin Ni and Kai Yuan and Ya-jun Yang and Xiong Yang and Chang Liu and Haiyi Lou and Zhilin Ning and Yuchen Wang and Dongsheng Lu and Chao Zhang and Ying Zhou and Meng Shi and Lei Tian and Xiaoji Wang and Xi Zhang and Jing Li and Asifullah Khan and Yaqun Guan and Kun Tang and Sijia Wang and Shuhua Xu},
  journal={Molecular Biology and Evolution},
  year={2017},
  volume={34},
  pages={2572–2582}
}
The Uyghur people residing in Xinjiang, a territory located in the far west of China and crossed by the Silk Road, are a key ethnic group for understanding the history of human dispersion in Eurasia. Here we assessed the genetic structure and ancestry of 951 Xinjiang's Uyghurs (XJU) representing 14 geographical subpopulations. We observed a southwest and northeast differentiation within XJU, which was likely shaped jointly by the Tianshan Mountains, which traverses from east to west as a… 

Figures from this paper

The Genetic Structure and East-West Population Admixture in Northwest China Inferred From Genome-Wide Array Genotyping
TLDR
Supporting evidence is provided that the flourish transcontinental communication between East and West Eurasia played a vital role in the genetic formation of northwest Chinese populations.
Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes Reveal Extensive Genetic Influence of the Steppe Pastoralists in Western Xinjiang
TLDR
This study provides genetic links for an early existence of the Indo-Iranian language in southwestern Xinjiang and suggests that the existence of Andronovo culture in western Xinjiang involved not only the dispersal of ideas but also population movement.
Bronze and Iron Age population movements underlie Xinjiang population history
The Xinjiang region in northwest China is a historically important geographical passage between East and West Eurasia. By sequencing 201 ancient genomes from 39 archaeological sites, we clarify the
Ancient Xinjiang mitogenomes reveal intense admixture with high genetic diversity
TLDR
Overall, the Bronze Age Xinjiang populations show high diversity and regional genetic affinities with Steppe and northeastern Asian populations along with a deep ancient Siberian connection for the Tarim Basin Xiaohe individuals.
Genetic Origins and Sex-Biased Admixture of the Huis
TLDR
The first whole-genome sequencing effort of 234 Hui individuals aged over 60 who have been living in Ningxia indicates that NXH experienced an episode of two-wave admixture, suggesting the origins and the genomic diversity of the Hui people imply the complex history of contacts between western and eastern Eurasians.
Fine‐scale genetic structure of Tujia and central Han Chinese revealing massive genetic admixture under language borrowing
TLDR
Tujia and central Han Chinese could be modeled as a two‐way admixture deriving primary ancestry from a northern ancestral population closely related to the ancient DevilsCave and present‐day Tibetans and a southern ancestral population close to the present-day Tai‐Kadai and Austronesian‐speaking groups.
Genetic structure and forensic characteristics of the Kyrgyz population from Kizilsu Kirghiz autonomous prefecture based on autosomal DIPs
TLDR
A close genetic relationship between the Kyrgyz population and the Uyghur/Kazak populations, followed by South Asian populations is suggested in accordance with the inland migration hypothesis or modern human migration influenced by warfare.
The Heart of Silk Road “Xinjiang,” Its Genetic Portray, and Forensic Parameters Inferred From Autosomal STRs
TLDR
Genetic distances, principal component analysis (PCA), STRUCTURE analysis, and the phylogenetic tree showed that genetic affinity among studied populations is consistent with linguistic, ethnic, and geographical classifications.
Forensic features and genetic structure of the Hotan Uyghur inferred from 27 forensic markers
TLDR
The findings not only reveal that Chinese Uyghur is a homogenous population based on forensic genetic markers, but also indicate that population genetic affinity is closely related to the adjacent populations with common ethnic origin.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 36 REFERENCES
Ancient DNA reveals a migration of the ancient Di-qiang populations into Xinjiang as early as the early Bronze Age.
Xinjiang is at the crossroads between East and West Eurasia, and it harbors a relatively complex genetic history. In order to better understand the population movements and interactions in this
Different matrilineal contributions to genetic structure of ethnic groups in the silk road region in china.
TLDR
Direct evidence supporting the suggestion that Central Asia is the location of genetic admixture of the East and the West is provided, with the highest frequency present in Uygur and Uzbek samples, and no western Eurasian type was found in Han Chinese samples from the same place.
Analysis of ancient human mitochondrial DNA from the Xiaohe cemetery: insights into prehistoric population movements in the Tarim Basin, China
BackgroundThe Tarim Basin in western China, known for its amazingly well-preserved mummies, has been for thousands of years an important crossroad between the eastern and western parts of Eurasia.
Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age, which is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixtures population settled in theTarim Basin.
Haplotype-sharing analysis showing Uyghurs are unlikely genetic donors.
TLDR
A haplotype-sharing analysis based on empirical and simulated data of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms concluded that the gene pool of modern UIGs is more likely a sole recipient with contribution from both EAS and EUR.
Genetic landscape of Eurasia and "admixture" in Uyghurs.
The Complex Admixture History and Recent Southern Origins of Siberian Populations
TLDR
The results provide support for a recent population replacement in this region, with the northward expansions of different populations possibly being driven partly by the advent of pastoralism, especially reindeer domestication.
Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang.
TLDR
Results obtained by this analysis provide little support for either the steppe hypothesis or the Bactrian oasis hypothesis, but the pattern of phenetic affinities manifested by Bronze Age inhabitants of theTarim Basin suggests the presence of a population of unknown origin within the Tarim Basin during the early Bronze Age.
A genome-wide analysis of admixture in Uyghurs and a high-density admixture map for disease-gene discovery.
...
...