Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs

  title={Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs},
  author={Peter Savolainen and Ya-ping Zhang and Jing Luo and Joakim Lundeberg and Thomas Leitner},
  pages={1610 - 1613}
The origin of the domestic dog from wolves has been established, but the number of founding events, as well as where and when these occurred, is not known. To address these questions, we examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation among 654 domestic dogs representing all major dog populations worldwide. Although our data indicate several maternal origins from wolf, >95% of all sequences belonged to three phylogenetic groups universally represented at similar frequencies… 
Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA
Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pool in all other regions may derive from ASY.
Geographical Origin of the Domestic Dog
The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered to be the oldest domestic animal in the world. World-wide mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) studies clearly indicate a single origin in
Genomic and archaeological evidence suggest a dual origin of domestic dogs
Results suggest that dogs may have been domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia from distinct wolf populations, and East Eurasian dogs were then possibly transported to Europe with people, where they partially replaced European Paleolithic dogs.
Comprehensive study of mtDNA among Southwest Asian dogs contradicts independent domestication of wolf, but implies dog–wolf hybridization
Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity indicate explicitly that dogs were domesticated, probably exclusively, in southern East Asia. However, Southwest Asia (SwAsia) has had poor
Mitochondrial DNA from prehistoric canids highlights relationships between dogs and South-East European wolves.
A-DNA support for the involvement of European wolves in the origins of the three major dog clades is provided and genetic data suggest multiple independent domestication events.
Phylogenetic studies of dogs with emphasis on Japanese and Asian breeds
  • Y. Tanabe
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and biological sciences
  • 2007
Ethological studies have revealed a significant breed difference in behavioral traits among canine breeds with Japanese dogs, showing more aggressive dispositions than most of European dogs.
Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world
It is found that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern EastAsia 33 000 years ago.
MHC variability supports dog domestication from a large number of wolves: high diversity in Asia
The second exon of the canine MHC gene DLA–DRB1 from 128 Asian dogs is sequenced and compared with a previously published large data set of MHC alleles, showing that Asian dogs have a higher MHC diversity than European dogs.
mtDNA Data Indicate a Single Origin for Dogs South of Yangtze River, Less Than 16,300 Years Ago, from Numerous Wolves
Results indicate that the domestic dog originated in southern China less than 16,300 ya, from several hundred wolves, suggesting that the dogs may have originated among sedentary hunter-gatherers or early farmers, and the numerous founders indicate that wolf taming was an important culture trait.
Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog
Analysis of ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai reveals that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves.


Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog.
Sequences from both dogs and wolves showed considerable diversity and supported the hypothesis that wolves were the ancestors of dogs, suggesting that dogs originated more than 100,000 years before the present.
Molecular evolution of the dog family.
  • R. Wayne
  • Biology, Medicine
    Trends in genetics : TIG
  • 1993
High rates of gene flow among populations within some species, such as the coyote and gray wolf, have suppressed genetic divergence, and where these species hybridize, large hybrid zones have been formed.
Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf Canis lupus
The results suggest that fluctuating population sizes during the late Pleistocene have left a genetic signature on levels of variation in both species, and a statistical parsimony analysis indicates local genetic structure that suggests recent restricted gene flow.
Intra- and interbreed genetic variations of mitochondrial DNA major non-coding regions in Japanese native dog breeds (Canis familiaris).
Phylogenetic analysis showed that Japanese native dog breeds could not be clearly delimited as distinct breeds, and interbreed nucleotide differences between Japanese dog breeds were almost the same as the intrabreed nucleotide diversities.
Evidence for domestication of the dog 12,000 years ago in the Natufian of Israel
THREE canid finds from the Natufian in the northern Israeli sites of Bin Mallaha (Eynan) and Hayonim terrace indicate a special man–animal relationship. These consist of a diminutive carnassial and
Two New Dogs, and Other Natufian Dogs, from the Southern Levant
It is shown that the shortening of the muzzle mainly affected the anterior part of the snout, while the posterior region remained practically unchanged, and Natufian dogs seem to display a typical case of paedomorphosis.
Studies on early dog remains from northern Europe
Discriminant function analysis is a useful statistical tool for the solution of taxonomic problems. This technique has been applied to the identification of early dog finds from archaeological sites
Classification of mammals : above the species level
Malcolm C. McKenna and Susan K. McKenna inherited the project from Simpson and, with Bell, has constructed a completely updated hierarchical system that reflects the genealogy of Mammalia.
New osteological and C-isotope evidence on mesolithic dogs: Companions to hunters and fishers at Star Carr, Seamer Carr and Kongemose
The skulls and bones of domestic dog (Canis familiaris) and wolf (Canis lupus) from the Mesolithic site of Star Carr, Yorkshire, England are reviewed in the context of the new find of the cervical
Comparative Biology and Evolutionary Relationships of Tree Shrews
The phylogeny of the Primates, a review of the evolution of the lacrimal in vertebrates with special reference to that of mammals, and the determination of parallel or monophyletic relationships are reviewed.