Genetic Diversity in Introduced Populations with an Allee Effect

@article{Wittmann2014GeneticDI,
  title={Genetic Diversity in Introduced Populations with an Allee Effect},
  author={Meike J. Wittmann and Wilfried Gabriel and Dirk Metzler},
  journal={Genetics},
  year={2014},
  volume={198},
  pages={299 - 310}
}
A phenomenon that strongly influences the demography of small introduced populations and thereby potentially their genetic diversity is the demographic Allee effect, a reduction in population growth rates at small population sizes. We take a stochastic modeling approach to investigate levels of genetic diversity in populations that successfully overcame either a strong Allee effect, in which populations smaller than a certain critical size are expected to decline, or a weak Allee effect, in… 

Figures from this paper

Population Genetic Consequences of the Allee Effect and the Role of Offspring-Number Variation
TLDR
The results highlight the importance of detailed biological knowledge, in this case on the probability distribution of family sizes, when predicting the evolutionary potential of newly founded populations or when using genetic data to reconstruct their demographic history.
The genetic Allee effect: A unified framework for the genetics and demography of small populations
TLDR
The possibility of considering demogenetic feedback in light of genetic Allee effects clarifies the analysis and interpretation of demographic and genetic processes, and the interplay between them, in small populations.
Genetic Allee effects and their interaction with ecological Allee effects
TLDR
The results indicate that inbreeding depression can indeed cause a strong genetic Allee effect, but only if individuals carry sufficiently many deleterious mutations on average and if these mutations are spread across sufficiently many loci.
The implications of rapid eco‐evolutionary processes for biological control ‐ a review
TLDR
Experiments show that evolving populations can establish at higher rates and grow larger than non‐evolving populations, and indicate that evolution is likely more important in biocontrol programs than previously realized.
Dispersal reduces interspecific competitiveness by spreading locally harmful traits
TLDR
An individual-based simulation model is presented that explores the interaction between dispersal rate and traits that increase individual fecundity at the expense of conspecific fitness and shows how this process may shift the makeup of communities over time toward a greater representation of low-dispersal species.
Mate choice explains high genetic diversity in a small founding population of the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri)
TLDR
The findings suggest that female choice in this otariid species appears important, although may be constrained in some situations, and also help to explain how the recently founded population is able to maintain a viable, growing population.
Rare events in stochastic populations under bursty reproduction
TLDR
It is shown in the extinction problem that bursty reproduction broadens the quasi-stationary distribution of population sizes in the metastable state, which results in a drastic reduction of the mean time to extinction compared to the non-bursty case, and in the survival problem, it is shown that Bursty reproduction drastically increases the survival probability of the population.
The role of social structure and kin associations in the mating system of the polygynous New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri)
TLDR
This research aimed to determine whether interactions between male relatives influence male reproductive success, as well as the role of female mate choice in determining the genetic relatedness of mating pairs, an important factor for subsequent offspring fitness.
Spatial distribution, niche ecology and conservation genetics of Degenia velebitica (Brassicaceae), a narrow endemic species of the north-western Dinaric Alps
TLDR
This work investigated spatial distribution, community composition, site ecology, genetic diversity and conservation of Degenia velebitica, a stenoendemic species of the north-western Dinaric Alps, and recognized two main genetic groups of populations as evolutionary significant units that should be considered when planning protection measures.
File S1 Details of the genealogy simulation
  • Biology
  • 2014
To simulate a genealogy, we start with the n s = 10 individuals sampled at generation T z and then trace their ancestry 2 backward in time generation by generation until we arrive at the most recent
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 56 REFERENCES
Population Genetic Consequences of the Allee Effect and the Role of Offspring-Number Variation
TLDR
The results highlight the importance of detailed biological knowledge, in this case on the probability distribution of family sizes, when predicting the evolutionary potential of newly founded populations or when using genetic data to reconstruct their demographic history.
Limits to genetic bottlenecks and founder events imposed by the Allee effect
TLDR
It is found that during realistic bottlenecks or founder events, >90% of H. shoshone populations in the Sierra Nevada may be resistant to significant changes in heterozygosity or genetic distance, and 70–75% of populations may lose <10% of allelic richness.
Allee effects in stochastic populations
The Allee effect, or inverse density dependence at low population sizes, could seriously impact preservation and management of biological populations. The mounting evidence for widespread Allee
Allee effect promotes diversity in traveling waves of colonization
TLDR
It is shown that the presence of an Allee effect drastically modifies genetic diversity, both in the colonization front and behind it, and this provides insight into the dynamics of traveling wave solutions and leads to a new interpretation of the mathematical notions of pulled and pushed waves.
The biology of small, introduced populations, with special reference to biological control
TLDR
The demographic and genetic processes at play in small populations, be they stochastic or deterministic, are reviewed and the theoretical outcomes of these different processes with respect to individual fitness, population growth rate, and establishment probability are discussed.
Gene surfing in expanding populations.
Allee effects in biological invasions
Limited evidence for the demographic Allee effect from numerous species across taxa.
TLDR
It is concluded that there is relatively high potential for demographic Allee effects in these 1198 time series but comparatively few observed cases, perhaps due to the influences of climate and measurement error.
A Stochastic Model for Annual Reproductive Success
TLDR
A stochastic model framework for ARS is introduced and it is shown that the distributions of ARS are often multimodal and skewed, with implications for extinction risk and evolution in small populations.
The evidence for Allee effects
TLDR
Although there is conclusive evidence for Allee effects due to a variety of mechanisms in natural populations of 59 animal species, it is found that existing data addressing the strength and commonness ofAllee effects across species and populations is limited; evidence for a critical density for most populations is lacking.
...
...