Genetic, epigenetic and posttranslational mechanisms of aging

  title={Genetic, epigenetic and posttranslational mechanisms of aging},
  author={Ladislas Robert and Jacqueline Labat-Robert and Alexandre Robert},
Gerontological experimentation is and was always strongly influenced by “theories”. The early decades of molecular genetics inspired deterministic thinking, based on the “Central Dogma” (DNA → RNA → Proteins). With the progress of detailed knowledge of gene-function a much more complicated picture emerged. Regulation of gene-expression turned out to be a highly complicated process. Experimental gerontology produced over the last decades several “paradigms” incompatible with simple genetic… 

Nutritional influence on epigenetics and effects on longevity

  • M. NiculescuD. Lupu
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care
  • 2011
Complex epigenetic mechanisms are involved in aging and longevity, directly or indirectly via disease mechanisms and nutrition holds promise in having important roles in regulating longevity and aging.

DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration.

Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age- related diseases and promoting a healthy life span.

What is lifespan regulation and why does it exist?

Distinctions and definitions are provided for key terms (and their concepts) used in the paper: senescence, lifespan, potential lifespan, essential lifespan, and lifespan regulation.

Differential Expression of Long Noncoding RNA in the Rat Brain During Aging

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Decoding the role of long noncoding RNAs in the healthy aging of centenarians

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ROS The Cell Aging Regulation System ( CARS )

The updated mitochondrial free radical theory of aging (MFRTA) is reviewed as part of the cell aging regulatory system (CARS) and focuses on low mitROSp and low sensitivity of membranes to oxidation in long-lived animals.

Mitochondrial ROS and mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA as a main effector of ageing: the "cell aging regulation system”

The updated mitochondrial free radical theory of aging (MFRTA) is reviewed as part of the cell aging regulatory system (CARS) and focuses on low mitROSp and low sensitivity of membranes to oxidation in long-lived animals.



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These examples clearly show the intricate cooperation of gene-mediated processes and of post-synthetic processes as the novel properties offibronectin and elastin derived peptides in tissue-aging.

Intrinsic mutagenesis: a genetic approach to ageing

This book is something which almost accidentally has developed very differently from how it was initially planned. The intention was to elaborate the part played by the immune system in ageing with

The genetics of human longevity.

Epigenetics: regulation through repression.

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence, which can complicate the genetic manipulation of plants and animals.

Mechanisms of Aging of the Extracellular Matrix: Role of the Elastin-Laminin Receptor

The role of the elastin-laminin receptor is studied, which results in a chronic overstimulation of the receptor with sustained free radical and lytic enzyme production and illustrates the importance of altered receptor function in tissue aging and related pathologies.

Rapid increase in human life expectancy: will it soon be limited by the aging of elastin?

The answer to the initial question, can age-dependent alterations of a single matrix macromolecule be limiting such vital functions as the cardio-respiratory system—is a cautious yes, with the caveat that other, independent mechanisms, such as the Maillard reaction, can also interfere with and limit further the functional value of such vital physiological functions.

Genetic links between diet and lifespan: shared mechanisms from yeast to humans

Evidence is mounting that the brain has a crucial role in sensing dietary restriction and promoting longevity in metazoans, and this work aims to solve the puzzle of the genetic bases of energy sensing and lifespan control in yeast, invertebrates and mammals.

Epigenetic inheritance based on DNA methylation.

Stem line cells have a heritable phenotype, but in a sense they are unstable, because a single mitotic division can give rise to cells with very different cell fates: one remains a stem line cell and the other will become differentiated.

Genetics: A Conceptual Approach

Comparison of Human and Chimpanzee Genomes is Helping to Reveal Genes That Make Humans Unique Quantitative Genetics Quantitative Characteristics Vary Continuously and Many Are Influenced by Alleles at Multiple Loci Statistical Methods are Required for Analyzing Quantitative characteristics.