Genesis of the Anti-Plague System: The Tsarist Period

  title={Genesis of the Anti-Plague System: The Tsarist Period},
  author={Alexander Melikishvili},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Microbiology},
  pages={19 - 31}
Although the anti-plague system of the former Soviet Union developed fully during the Soviet era, its foundations were laid long before the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. This article traces the evolution of the anti-plague measures from imposition of temporary quarantine in affected areas to the creation of the standard response system and the establishment of permanent anti-plague organizations. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that by the end of the nineteenth century and the… 
The Formation of the Russian Medical Profession: A Comparison of Power and Plagues in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
This thesis examines the Russian medical apparatus as it developed under Catherine the Great (1729-[1762]-1796) in the eighteenth century, and in the period following the zemstvo reform of 1864 to
A genomic and historical synthesis of plague in 18th century Eurasia
This study documents the importance of a noneurocentric approach to historical plague dynamics and proposes an origin of plague introductions outside of Europe, as well as pointing toward the existence of an extra-European reservoir feeding plague into Western Europe in multiple waves.
Biosafety in the Field: An Account of a Kyrgyz Antiplague Expedition
The Soviet Union had a unique system to control plague (causative agent, Yersinia pestis) and other “especially dangerous diseases.” This system continues to exist in many of the countries of the
Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe
It is shown that climate-driven outbreaks of Yersinia pestis in Asian rodent plague reservoirs are significantly associated with new waves of plague arriving into Europe through its maritime trade network with Asia, which strongly suggests that the bacterium was continuously reimported into Europe during the second plague pandemic.
Public Health and Private Charity in Northeast China, 1905–1945
Medical charity in northeast China evolved through the confluence of three processes: the foundation of state medicine, the legal and political transformation of private charities, and the
Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus
Five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France, suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries, and it is proposed that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death.
A Case History in Cooperative Biological Research: Compendium of Studies and Program Analyses in Kazakhstan
A historical perspective for the CBR involvement in Kazakhstan is provided, including project chronology, successes and challenges to allow lessons learned to be applied to future CBR endeavors.
The human-animal interface and zoonotic threats: the Russian Federation approach.
The RF AP system has select components that effectively address recent concerns and inform the US and UK intersectoral efforts on human-animal health surveillance, forming a basis for US, UK, and RF collaboration.
Eight Years of Collaboration on Biosafety and Biosecurity Issues Between Kazakhstan and Germany as Part of the German Biosecurity Programme and the G7 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction
The German-Kazakh Network for Biosafety and Biosecurity was established in 2013 and constitutes a successful collaboration between Kazakh and German biomedical organisations, able to establish a viable network of biosafety and biOSEcurity shareholders and to accomplish the aims of the German BioseCurity Programme to lower biosec security risks by increased awareness, improved detection and diagnostic methods and surveillance.
Rapid, specific detection and quantification of Yersinia pestis using a species-specific SNP in the ferric uptake regulator gene (furMAMA)
A TaqMan® mismatch amplification mutation assay (TaqMAMA) where a primer leverages a species-specific SNP in the chromosomal single copy ferric uptake regulator gene of Yersinia pestis to allow specific, rapid detection and quantification of the agent.


The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe
A fascinating work of detective history, "The Black Death" traces the causes and far-reaching consequences of this infamous outbreak of plague that spread across the continent of Europe from 1347 to
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This bibliography, which was compiled in conjunction with a review of the developmental disabilities literature focusing on interventions with challenging behavior, contains references for 151
Anthology of Some Biosafety Aspects in Russia (up to 1960)
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Silent Heroism: In dedication to 100th anniversary of the Astrakhan anti-plague station (in Russian) Available at:
  • Volga
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Wrathful Tsarina in Moscow: Plague epidemic of 1770– 1772 and the struggle with it (in Russian)
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Stages of Development of Russia's plague control service (in Russian) Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnyye Bolezni No
  • Stages of Development of Russia's plague control service (in Russian) Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnyye Bolezni No
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Plague (in Russian). Baku, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
  • Plague (in Russian). Baku, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
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Understanding the Bioterrorist Threat: Facts and Figures. Backgrounder (Heritage Foundation) 1488. (11 October) Available at
  • Understanding the Bioterrorist Threat: Facts and Figures. Backgrounder (Heritage Foundation) 1488. (11 October) Available at
  • 2001
Moscow: Izdatelstvo Meditsina
  • 1998
Plague (in Russian) Moscow: Izdatelstvo Meditsina. Available at
  • Plague (in Russian) Moscow: Izdatelstvo Meditsina. Available at
  • 1998