Genesis and evolution of the 1997-98 El Nino

  title={Genesis and evolution of the 1997-98 El Nino},
  volume={283 5404},
  • McPhaden
  • Published 1999
  • Geography, Medicine
  • Science
The 1997-98 El Nino was, by some measures, the strongest on record, with major climatic impacts felt around the world. A newly completed tropical Pacific atmosphere-ocean observing system documented this El Nino from its rapid onset to its sudden demise in greater detail than was ever before possible. The unprecedented measurements challenge existing theories about El Nino-related climate swings and suggest why climate forecast models underpredicted the strength of the El Nino before its onset. 
Evolution of the 2002/03 El Niño*
An El Nino of moderate intensity developed in the tropical Pacific in 2002/03. This event, though not as strong as the 1997/98 El Nino, had significant impacts on patterns of weather variabilityExpand
The 1918/19 El Niño
AbstractEl Nino is widely recognized as a source of global climate variability. However, because of limited ocean observations during the early part of the twentieth century, little is known about ElExpand
Changes in oceanic precipitation during the 1997-98 El Niño
The recent El Nino has been by most measures one of the most extreme, and there have been several papers on its thermal signature and associated wind field. There has also been wide coverage of theExpand
Dynamic evolution of the 1997–1999 El Niño–La Niña cycle in the southern California Current System
Abstract The development of the strongest El Nino event on record in the equatorial Pacific in 1997–1998 and the rapid transition to strong La Nina conditions in 1998–1999 had a large impact on theExpand
Equatorial waves and the 1997–98 El Niño
New measurements and model results highlight the role of equatorial oceanic wave processes in affecting the evolution of the 1997–98 El Nino in ways not fully anticipated by delayed oscillatorExpand
What Caused the Onset of the 1997-98 El Nino ?
Abstract There has been intense debate about the causes of the 1997–98 El Nino. One side sees the obvious intense westerly wind events as the main cause for the exceptional heating in summer 1997,Expand
Mechanisms of the 1997–1998 El Niño–La Niña, as inferred from space‐based observations
[1] The intensity of the 1997 El Nino and the 8°C sudden drop in sea surface temperature (SST) around 0°–130°W during the turn into La Nina in 1998 were a surprise to the scientific community. ThisExpand
Observing abnormal wind features of the tropical Pacific Ocean during the 1997-98 El Nino
  • Ge Chen, C. Fang, L. Fang
  • Computer Science
  • IGARSS 2001. Scanning the Present and Resolving the Future. Proceedings. IEEE 2001 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (Cat. No.01CH37217)
  • 2001
These features, revealed by the multi-year TOPEX altimeter data, may serve as new clues to improve the understanding of El Nino formation, and may also contribute to its future prediction. Expand
Physical‐biological coupling in the California Current during the 1997–99 El Niño‐La Niña Cycle
The rapid transition from strong El Nino to strong La Nina conditions in the equatorial Pacific in 1998 was accompanied by considerable environmental variability in the southern California CurrentExpand
Abrupt termination of the 1997–98 El Niño in response to a Madden–Julian oscillation
The role of the Madden–Julian oscillation—a global atmospheric wave in the tropics that is associated with convective activity and propagates eastwards with a period of about 30–60 days (refs 1,Expand


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Perturbations to phytoplankton biomass associated with the onset of the 1997–98 El Nino event are described and explained using physical and bio-optical data from moorings in the central equatorialExpand
The 1990–1995 El Niño‐Southern Oscillation Event: Longest on Record
The tendency for more frequent E1 Nifio events America to the International Dateline. It is the basin-scale and fewer La Nifia events since the late 1970's has been phenomenon, however, that isExpand
Zonal Winds in the Central Equatorial Pacific and El Ni�o
Easterly trade winds from near-equatorial islands in the central Pacific weakened before each El Ni �o between 1950 and 1978, except for the 1963 El Ni�o, through a series of strong westerly wind bursts lasting 1 to 3 weeks. Expand
Oceanic Equatorial Waves and the 1991–93 El Niño
Abstract Equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves associated with the 1991–93 El Nino warm event were detected in temperature observations made by the Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) buoy array.Expand
Experimental forecasts of El Niño
Experimental forecasts of El Niño events occurring since 1970, made with a deterministic model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, indicate that El Niño is generally predictable one or two yearsExpand
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Abstract The tropical Ocean-atmosphere exhibits two prominent modes of low-frequency oscillations, i.e., the “40-50” day oscillation and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The two phenomena areExpand
A Western Pacific Oscillator Paradigm for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation
A data-based hypothesis is presented on the mechanism of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a major determinant of interannual global climate variability. The hypothesis emphasizes theExpand
El Ni�o-Southern Oscillation Displacements of the Western Equatorial Pacific Warm Pool
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Models Win Big in Forecasting El Niño
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