Genesis and evolution of the 1997-98 El Nino

  title={Genesis and evolution of the 1997-98 El Nino},
  volume={283 5404},
  • McPhaden
  • Published 12 February 1999
  • Environmental Science
  • Science
The 1997-98 El Nino was, by some measures, the strongest on record, with major climatic impacts felt around the world. A newly completed tropical Pacific atmosphere-ocean observing system documented this El Nino from its rapid onset to its sudden demise in greater detail than was ever before possible. The unprecedented measurements challenge existing theories about El Nino-related climate swings and suggest why climate forecast models underpredicted the strength of the El Nino before its onset. 

Evolution of the 2002/03 El Niño*

An El Nino of moderate intensity developed in the tropical Pacific in 2002/03. This event, though not as strong as the 1997/98 El Nino, had significant impacts on patterns of weather variability

The 1918/19 El Niño

AbstractEl Nino is widely recognized as a source of global climate variability. However, because of limited ocean observations during the early part of the twentieth century, little is known about El

Changes in oceanic precipitation during the 1997–98 El Niño

The recent El Niño has been by most measures one of the most extreme, and there have been several papers on its thermal signature and associated wind field. There has also been wide coverage of the

Equatorial waves and the 1997–98 El Niño

New measurements and model results highlight the role of equatorial oceanic wave processes in affecting the evolution of the 1997–98 El Niño in ways not fully anticipated by delayed oscillator

Mechanisms of the 1997–1998 El Niño–La Niña, as inferred from space‐based observations

[1] The intensity of the 1997 El Nino and the 8°C sudden drop in sea surface temperature (SST) around 0°–130°W during the turn into La Nina in 1998 were a surprise to the scientific community. This

Observing abnormal wind features of the tropical Pacific Ocean during the 1997-98 El Nino

  • Ge ChenC. FangLixin Fang
  • Environmental Science
    IGARSS 2001. Scanning the Present and Resolving the Future. Proceedings. IEEE 2001 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (Cat. No.01CH37217)
  • 2001
These features, revealed by the multi-year TOPEX altimeter data, may serve as new clues to improve the understanding of El Nino formation, and may also contribute to its future prediction.

Physical‐biological coupling in the California Current during the 1997–99 El Niño‐La Niña Cycle

The rapid transition from strong El Niño to strong La Niña conditions in the equatorial Pacific in 1998 was accompanied by considerable environmental variability in the southern California Current

Abrupt termination of the 1997–98 El Niño in response to a Madden–Julian oscillation

The role of the Madden–Julian oscillation—a global atmospheric wave in the tropics that is associated with convective activity and propagates eastwards with a period of about 30–60 days (refs 1,


The 1997-98 El Nino, known as the strongest in recorded history, manifested itself with a number of unusual features associated with the Pacific wind system. These features include: 1) an annual



El Niño in the 1990s

The evolution of the unusual warming events of the first half of the 1990s is discussed based on the National Center for Environmental Prediction ocean re-analysis data, covering 1980-1995. The

Biological‐physical coupling in the Central Equatorial Pacific during the onset of the 1997–98 El Niño

Perturbations to phytoplankton biomass associated with the onset of the 1997–98 El Niño event are described and explained using physical and bio‐optical data from moorings in the central equatorial

The 1990–1995 El Niño‐Southern Oscillation Event: Longest on Record

The tendency for more frequent E1 Nifio events America to the International Dateline. It is the basin-scale and fewer La Nifia events since the late 1970's has been phenomenon, however, that is

Zonal Winds in the Central Equatorial Pacific and El Ni�o

Easterly trade winds from near-equatorial islands in the central Pacific weakened before each El Ni �o between 1950 and 1978, except for the 1963 El Ni�o, through a series of strong westerly wind bursts lasting 1 to 3 weeks.

Experimental forecasts of El Niño

Experimental forecasts of El Niño events occurring since 1970, made with a deterministic model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, indicate that El Niño is generally predictable one or two years

The 40-50 day oscillation and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation: a new perspective

Abstract The tropical Ocean-atmosphere exhibits two prominent modes of low-frequency oscillations, i.e., the “40-50” day oscillation and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The two phenomena are

A Western Pacific Oscillator Paradigm for the El Niño‐Southern Oscillation

A data‐based hypothesis is presented on the mechanism of the El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a major determinant of interannual global climate variability. The hypothesis emphasizes the

El Ni�o-Southern Oscillation Displacements of the Western Equatorial Pacific Warm Pool

Direct velocity measurements made in the upper ocean from 1986 to 1988 indicate that wind-forced zonal advection plays an important role in the thermodynamics of the western Pacific warm pool on interannual time scales.

Models Win Big in Forecasting El Niño

  • R. Kerr
  • Environmental Science
  • 1998
CLIMATE PREDICTIONPredictions of the most recent El NiA±o were widely regarded as a stunning success: Forecasters warned of torrential rain in California this winter and drought in Indonesia, and

Greenhouse Warming, Decadal Variability, or El Niño? An Attempt to Understand the Anomalous 1990s

The dominant variability modes in the Tropics are investigated and contrasted with the anomalous situation observed during the last few years. The prime quantity analyzed is anomalous sea surface