Actin gene structure in twoArtemia species,A. franciscana andA. parthenogenetica
The elongation factor EF-1 alpha is one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic cells, where it catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to ribosomes. The genes coding for this protein in the brine shrimp Artemia were analyzed by gene cloning, electron microscopy and chromosomal blot hybridization. There are only a few (about four) copies of one type of gene per haploid genome. These genes contain five exons divided over 10(4) base pairs. Local rearrangements give rise to a number of gene variants. Cross-hybridizations of Artemia cDNA probes with yeast and Drosophila DNA revealed two different yeast EF-1 alpha genes and one or two different Drosophila genes, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing revealed signals for synthesis and processing of EF-1 alpha transcripts as well as the exact location of exons. One interruption in the coding sequence corresponds closely to a splice junction in the gene coding for the homologous chloroplast protein EF-Tu from Euglena gracilis, presumably of prokaryotic origin. The first exon in the chloroplast gene codes for the region of EF-Tu that is homologous to regions of the elongation factor EF-G and of the initiation factor IF2, respectively.