Genes and addiction

@article{Nestler2000GenesAA,
  title={Genes and addiction},
  author={Eric J. Nestler},
  journal={Nature Genetics},
  year={2000},
  volume={26},
  pages={277-281}
}
  • E. Nestler
  • Published 1 November 2000
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Nature Genetics
Drug addiction, like all psychiatric disorders, is defined solely in behavioural terms. For example, addiction can be considered a loss of control over drug-taking, or compulsive drug-seeking and -taking despite horrendous consequences. Abnormal behaviours are a consequence of aberrant brain function, which means that it is a tangible goal to identify the biological underpinnings of addiction. The genetic basis of addiction encompasses two broad areas of enquiry. One of these is the… 

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A draft sequence of the human genome is searched for genes related to desensitization of receptors that mediate the actions of drugs of abuse on the nervous system by searching for genes that contribute to individual risk for addiction.

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The most common preclinical models of addictive behavior, including non-contingent models in which animals are passively exposed to rewarding substances, as well as widely used contingent models such as drug self-administration and relapse are reviewed.

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This review describes recent findings of addictive drugs-inducing altered changes in gene regulation which produce significant cellular modifications on neuronal function in both human and animal brains as detected in animal models of drug abuse.

Neuroimaging Human Drug Addiction

TLDR
This chapter explores the addiction syndrome by examining its emotional and cognitive behavioral components with a particular focus on reward valuation and inhibitory control and the brain regions and circuits that subserve them.

Genes associated with addiction

TLDR
A few selected genetic variants that currently look promising for the study of alcohol, opiate, and cocaine addiction are discussed in this article.

Addiction, neuroscience and ethics.

TLDR
The challenge is to develop theories of addiction that take seriously the neurobiological bases for drug effects and addictive phenomena without depicting addicts as automatons whose behaviour is under the control of the drugs acting on the receptors sites in their brains.

Molecular basis of long-term plasticity underlying addiction

  • E. Nestler
  • Biology, Psychology
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2001
TLDR
There has been considerable progress in identifying the mechanisms that contribute to long-lived neural and behavioural plasticity related to addiction, including drug-induced changes in gene transcription, in RNA and protein processing, and in synaptic structure.

Genetic contributions to addiction.

  • J. Crabbe
  • Biology, Psychology
    Annual review of psychology
  • 2002
TLDR
This review selects drug dependence as a paradigmatic addiction, and concentrates on the extensive literature with genetic animal models, both traditional studies with inbred strains and selected lines and studies exploiting the new molecularly based technologies of the genomics era are discussed.
...

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