Generating the cerebral cortical area map.

  title={Generating the cerebral cortical area map.},
  author={Elizabeth A Grove and Tomomi Fukuchi-Shimogori},
  journal={Annual review of neuroscience},
The view that the cortical primordium is initially patterned in similar ways to the rest of the embryo has been a conceptual breakthrough. We now have a new starting point for understanding how the cortical area map is established and how maps may change and evolve. Here we review findings that signaling molecules secreted from distinct cortical signaling centers establish positional information in the cortical primordium and regulate regional growth. In other embryonic systems, positional… 

Model of the Early Development of Thalamo-Cortical Connections and Area Patterning via Signaling Molecules

A theoretical model is presented that explicitly considers the genetic factors and that is able to explain several sets of experiments on cortical area regulation involving transcription factors Emx2 and Pax6, and fibroblast growth factor FGF8.

Area and layer patterning in the developing cerebral cortex

Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 Organizes the Neocortical Area Map and Regulates Sensory Map Topography

These findings implicate FGF8 as an organizers signal, and its source in the rostromedial telencephalon as an organizer of the neocortical area map.

Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 Regulates Neocortical Guidance of Area-Specific Thalamic Innervation

Thalamic axons faithfully tracked changes in area position and innervated duplicated somatosensory barrel fields induced by an ectopic source of FGF8, indicating that thalamicAxons indeed use intracortical positional information.

A computational model of the effect of gene misexpression on the development of cortical areas

This work formalises the relationships inferred from genetic manipulations into computational models and simulates many different networks potentially consistent with the experimental data and shows that a surprising diversity of networks produce similar results.

Prenatal thalamic waves regulate cortical area size prior to sensory processing

The existence of a prenatal sub-cortical mechanism that regulates the cortical areas size in mice is demonstrated and it is revealed that embryonic thalamic calcium waves coordinate cortical sensory area patterning and plasticity prior to sensory information processing.

Visual activity and cortical rewiring: activity-dependent plasticity of cortical networks.

Building blocks of the cerebral cortex: from development to the dish

Current classifications of the cellular constituents of the cerebral cortex are reviewed and how these building blocks are forged during development are examined, including how basic developmental features underlying cortex formation in vivo have been applied to protocols aimed at generating cortical tissue in vitro.



Patterning the mammalian cerebral cortex

Complex signaling responsible for molecular regionalization of the cerebral cortex.

The formation of discrete functional areas is a key event in the development of the cerebral cortex. The expression patterns of several molecules associated with axon guidance reveal specification of

Molecular gradients and compartments in the embryonic primate cerebral cortex.

The mature cerebral cortex is divided into morphologically distinct, functionally dedicated and stereotypically connected cortical areas. How might such functional domains arise during development?

Specification of cerebral cortical areas.

The radial unit model provides a framework for understanding cerebral evolution, epigenetic regulation of the parcellation of cytoarchitectonic areas, and insight into the pathogenesis of certain cortical disorders in humans.

Detailed Field Pattern Is Intrinsic to the Embryonic Mouse Hippocampus Early in Neurogenesis

It is shown that detailed patterning—the accurate positioning of several areas or fields—is intrinsic to the part of the primordium that generates the hippocampus, and hippocampal field patterning appears to be well established and resistant to the manipulation of several potential intrinsic cues.

Molecular Evidence for the Early Specification of Presumptive Functional Domains in the Embryonic Primate Cerebral Cortex

The results demonstrate molecular distinctions among cells of the embryonic primate neocortex, revealing hitherto unrecognized compartmentalization early in corticogenesis.

Area identity shifts in the early cerebral cortex of Emx2−/− mutant mice

It is found that the normal spectrum of cortical areal identities was encoded in these mutants, but areas with caudal–medial identities were reduced and those with anterior–lateral identities were relatively expanded in the cortex.

Genetic control of cortical regionalization and connectivity.

Evidence is accumulating which suggests that intrinsic mechanisms have a central role in controlling cortical regional specification and differentiation and the genetic control of regionalization and connectivity of the neocortex is reviewed.

Neocortex Patterning by the Secreted Signaling Molecule FGF8

Evidence that FGF8 regulates development of the area map in the mammalian neocortex from a source in the anterior telencephalon is provided, and a role for FGF signaling in specifying positional identity in the neocortex is supported.

Cell-Cycle Kinetics of Neocortical Precursors Are Influenced by Embryonic Thalamic Axons

The mechanisms whereby embryonic thalamic afferents contribute to the known early regionalization of the ventricular zone, which plays a major role in the specification of neocortical areas, are indicated.