Imported: 13 Feb '17 | Published: 18 Jan '11

USPTO - Utility Patents

A method for determining angular position, which removes a systematic error in the angular position determination and requires a low calculating effort, by determining a first factor and a second factor as a function of an angular position, forming a first product from a first signal and the first factor, and a second product of the second signal and the second factor, forming a subtraction result by the subtraction of the second product from the first product, and comparing the subtraction result to a quantity.

The present application claims priority to and the benefit of German patent application no. 10 2007 048856.6, which was filed in Germany on Oct. 11, 2007, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

The present invention relates to a method for determining angular position, a device for determining angular position and an angular position sensor.

Methods from the related art for determining angular position are based on a plurality of sensors which are situated, offset by a certain angle on a mechanical element, about a rotational axis around which the mechanical element rotates. Each of the sensors records a signal which changes sinusoidally as a function of the angular position. In the case of one widely used measuring method, a so-called dipolar angular position sensor is used, which has two identical sensors that are situated offset by 90°. An angular position φ is then calculated from a first sensor signal s_{1 }of one of the two sensors and from a second sensor signal s_{2 }of the other of the two sensors, according to the following formula:

One disadvantage of this method is that the calculation rests on the assumption that the sensor signals are not faulty.

However, this assumption will never be fulfilled, based on inaccuracies during manufacturing, wear and outside influences. Equation 1 does not, however, make it possible to determine these inaccuracies. In addition, one is not able to ascertain the results of the arc tangent function with the aid of a simple evaluation circuit.

The exemplary embodiments and/or exemplary methods of the present invention is based on the object of creating a method for determining angular position, a device for determining angular position and an angular position sensor which make it possible to remove systematic errors in the determination of angular position and which require a low calculating effort.

The object, on which the exemplary embodiments and/or exemplary methods of the present invention is based, is attained by a method for determining angular position according to the description herein, a device for determining angular position according to the description herein and an angular position sensor according to the description herein.

The exemplary embodiments and/or exemplary methods of the present invention relates to a method for determining angular position having the following steps: determining a first factor and a second factor as a function of an angular position; forming a first product of a first signal and the first factor, and a second product of the second signal and the second factor; forming a subtraction result by the subtraction of the second product from the first product; and comparing the subtraction result to a quantity.

These operations are fortunately able to be implemented by a simple integrated circuit. Therefore, the method is fast and may be applied economically.

In one exemplary embodiment, the method has the following further steps: determining an additional first factor and an additional second factor as a function of an additional angular position; forming an additional first product from the first signal and the additional first factor, and from an additional second product of the second signal and the additional second factor; forming an additional subtraction result by the subtraction of the additional second product from the additional first product; and comparing the additional subtraction result to the quantity.

The additional iterative steps for determining angular position advantageously also exclusively require simple operations.

In one refinement of the exemplary embodiment, an additional angular position is determined by successive approximation in such a way that the difference between the subtraction result and the quantity for the additional angular position is less than the difference between the subtraction result and the quantity for the angular position, in order thus to determine a resulting value for the angular position at a point in time.

Successive approximation is advantageously easy to implement, and leads rapidly to a precise determination of the angular position.

In another exemplary embodiment the quantity is zero.

This quantity is advantageously particularly easy to determine.

In yet another exemplary embodiment, the first signal is obtained by subtraction of a value from a first sinusoidal measuring signal, and the second signal is obtained by subtraction of an additional value from a second sinusoidal measuring signal.

The measuring accuracy may advantageously be increased, since offsets do not influence the measurements.

In yet another exemplary embodiment, the factors correspond to elements of a matrix for the transformation of the coordinates of a vector in a coordinate system having oblique coordinates to the coordinates of the vector in a coordinate system having orthogonal coordinates.

Such elements may advantageously be calculated easily, so that the angular position determination is able to be carried out particularly rapidly.

In one refinement of the exemplary embodiment, the method has the following further steps: determining a following first factor and a following second factor as a function of a following angular position; forming a following first product from a following first signal and the following first factor, and a following second product of the following second signal and the following second factor; forming a following subtraction result by the subtraction of the following second product from the following first product; and comparing the following subtraction result to a following quantity. The following quantity may be identical to the quantity, in this context.

In still another refinement of the exemplary embodiment, the method has the following further steps: determining another following first factor and another following second factor as a function of still another following angular position; forming still another following first product from the following first signal and the following first factor, and still another following second product of the still another following second signal and the following second factor; forming still another following subtraction result by the subtraction of the still another following second product from the still another following first product; and comparing the still another following subtraction result to a following quantity.

In still another refinement, the another following angular position is determined by successive approximation in such a way that the difference between the another following subtraction result and the following quantity for the additional following angular position is less than the difference between the following subtraction result and the following quantity for the following angular position, in order thus to determine a following resulting value for the angular position at a following point in time.

The following resulting value of the angular position may advantageously be determined rapidly and precisely at a short interval in time from the resulting value of the angular position.

In yet one more refinement of the exemplary embodiment, an angular velocity is determined based on the resulting value and the following resulting value and a time difference between the point in time and the following point in time.

An exact instantaneous value of the angular velocity may advantageously be determined based on the rapid angular position determination.

In still another further development of the exemplary embodiments, the difference between the following resulting value and the resulting value is compared to a threshold value, in order to determine whether the angular velocity is zero or not.

A rotational movement is advantageously able to be recorded without the recording being impaired by measuring errors below the threshold value. In addition, a suitable selection of the threshold value will lead to any rotational movement being able to be recorded, since, based on frictional phenomena, speeds, especially rotational speeds, occur only above a threshold value.

The exemplary embodiments and/or exemplary methods of the present invention also relates to a device for determining angular position, having: a factor determination device for determining a first factor and a second factor as a function of an angular position; a product-forming device for forming a first product from a first signal and the first factor, and a second product of the second signal and the second factor; a subtraction device for forming a subtraction result by the subtraction of the second product from the first product; and a comparing device for comparing the subtraction result to a quantity.

The exemplary embodiments and/or exemplary methods of the present invention also relates to an angular position sensor which has a device for determining angular position, having: a factor determination device for determining a first factor and a second factor as a function of an angular position; a product-forming device for forming a first product from a first signal and the first factor and a second product from a second signal and the second factor; a subtraction device for forming a subtraction result by subtracting the second product from the first product; and a comparing device for comparing the subtraction result to a quantity.

The exemplary embodiments and/or exemplary methods of the present invention is described in greater detail below with reference to the drawings.

FIG. 1 shows a representation of a vector _{0}″, y_{0}″ of vector _{0}, y_{0 }of coordinate system x, y with the aid of a transform matrix R:

The values x″, y_{0}″ may be regarded as being measuring signals from two sensors. These measuring signals which, in the ideal case, are sinusoidal and offset with respect to each other by Π/2, differ from each other in reality by Π/2−β, β being a phase shift, because of geometrical deviations of the sensors and signal transfer time differences.

For analysis, measuring signals x_{0}″ and y_{0}″ are calibrated relative to measuring signal x_{0}″ in the phase and are normalized to measuring signal x_{0}″. The measuring signals may then be represented as a measuring signal x″ without phase shift and a measuring signal y″ with phase shift, as follows:

Measuring signals x_{0}″ and y_{0}″ have offsets ox and oy. φ is the angular position, for which φ=ω·t applies, t being the time and ω being the angular velocity. Factor (1+F) is given by the difference of amplitude A_{x }of signal x″ and amplitude A_{y }of signal y″ (A_{y}=(1+f)·A_{x}).

By transforming signals x_{0}″ and y_{0}″, signals x_{0 }and y_{0 }are now determined in coordinate system x, y:

If the offsets ox and oy are removed ahead of time or are not present, and f is ignored, (y_{mod}=(1+f)·(y″−oy), x_{mod}=(x″−ox)), then for x_{0 }the following applies:

Simulations have shown that the assumption f=0 has only a slight influence in actuality. If, in addition, x_{0 }is set equal to zero, it follows that α=φ. Consequently, angular position φ may be determined without the influence of phase shift β.

FIG. 2 shows a schematic representation of a device for angular position determination. This device, in common with a first sensor and a second sensor (e.g. two coils) mounted on a rotatable mechanical element, and a corresponding detection variable generation device (e.g. a magnet), which is mounted on a stationary mechanical element, forms an angular position sensor. A sine signal x″ of a first sensor is supplied to a high-pass filter **2** via a signal input **1**. A sine signal y″ of a second sensor is supplied to a high-pass filter **4** via a signal input **3**. The offsets ox and oy are removed in high-pass filters **2** and **4**. If we may assume that the offsets are not present, high-pass filters **2** and **4** may also be omitted. Into the high-pass filters devices may be integrated, in each case, which normalize the amplitudes of sine signal x″ and cosine signal y″ to the same value. The device for determining the angular position may also have more than two sensors, whose signal are linked to one another and evaluated statistically, in order to achieve greater accuracy.

Filtered sine signal x_{mod }is then supplied to a multiplier **7** via a first signal input **5**. At the same time, a first factor signal F_{1 }is supplied to multiplier **7** via a second signal input **6**. In multiplier **7**, filtered sine signal x_{mod }is first represented digitally, and then digitally represented sine signal x_{mod }and first factor signal F_{1}, which is also represented digitally, are multiplied together, so that a first multiplication signal M_{1 }is created. Filtered cosine signal y_{mod }is then supplied in parallel to a multiplier **10** via a first signal input **8**. At the same time, a second factor signal F_{2}, which is also represented digitally, is supplied to multiplier **10** via a second signal input **9**. In multiplier **10**, filtered cosine signal y_{mod }is first represented digitally, and then digitally represented cosine signal y_{mod }and second factor signal F_{2 }are multiplied together, so that a second multiplication signal M_{2 }is created.

The two multiplication signals M_{1 }and M_{2 }are then supplied to a subtractor **11**. In subtractor **11**, second multiplication signal M_{2 }is subtracted from first multiplication signal M_{1}, so that a subtraction signal S is created. This subtraction signal S corresponds to x_{0 }if F_{1}=cos(α+β) and F_{2}=sin(α) apply.

Subtraction signal S is supplied to a comparator **12**, which determines whether subtractions signal S has a positive or a negative value, that is, greater than zero or less than zero, and based on this comparison, generates a comparison signal V having digital values 0 or 1, which is transmitted to a factor determination device **14**. The value 0 means that subtraction signal S is less than 0, and the value 1 means that subtraction signal S is greater than the value 0.

Filtered sine signal x_{mod }and filtered cosine signal y_{mod }are also supplied to a phase analysis device **13**, which determines phase shift β, for instance, from the relative position of the maxima of filtered sine signal x_{mod }and filtered cosine signal y_{mod}. Phase shift β is also supplied in digital form to factor determination device **14**.

In factor determination device **14**, first factor signal F_{1 }and second factor signal F_{2 }are determined so that the first factor signal corresponds to F_{1}=cos(α+β)=sin(α+β+Π/2) and the second factor signal corresponds to F_{2}=sin(α). For, in that case, α=φ, and angular position φ can be determined without phase shift.

The method for angular position determination is illustrated in the flow chart in FIG. 3. For the determination of the two factor signals F_{1 }and F_{2}, a calculating unit **17** establishes an initial starting value α_{0}, which is equivalent to a digital value (step S**1**).

Beginning at this starting value, calculating unit **17** calculates the two angles α_{0}+β+Π/2 and α_{0}+β. For the two angles α_{0}+β+Π/2 and α_{0}+β, calculating unit **17** first determines, with the aid of symmetry considerations for the sinus function, two angles α_{0}′ and α_{0}″, which lie in a quadrant 0 to Π/2, and for which the following equations apply:

sin(α_{0}′)=|sin(α_{0}+β+Π/2)| (6)

sin(α_{0}″)=|sin(α_{0})| (7)

Then, from a memory **16**, having values in tabular form, calculating unit **17** reads the sine function values sin(α_{0}″) and sin(α_{0}′) in a quadrant 0 to Π/2. The sine function values are stored in memory **16** at a precision of 2^{13 }bits, that is, 2Π corresponds to the binary number 2^{13}. Accordingly, Π/2 corresponds to the binary number 2^{11}. Access to memory **16** takes place via a control **15**. Control **15** also takes care of the communication between the inputs and the outputs of factor determination device **14**. Calculating unit **17** multiplies the sine function values sin(α_{0}″) and sin(α_{0}′), or one of sine function values sin(α_{0}−) and sin(α_{0}′), by −1, if necessary, in order to obtain the two factor signal F_{1}=cos(α_{0}+β) and F_{2}=sin(α_{0}) (Step S**2**).

The two factor signals F_{1}=cos(α_{0}+β) and F_{2}=sin(α_{0}) are now passed on to the two multipliers **7** and **10** by factor determination device **14**. Multipliers **7** and **10** now calculate, by multiplication by signals x_{mod }and y_{mod}, as described above, first multiplication signal M_{1}=cos(α_{0}+β)·x_{mod }and second multiplication signal M_{2}=sin(α_{0})·y_{mod }(Step S**3**).

Subtractor **11** then forms subtraction signal S from first multiplication signal M**1** and multiplication signal M_{2}, as described above (Step S**4**).

Comparator **12** then determines, as described above, whether the subtraction signal is greater than, or less than zero, and based on this comparison it generates comparison signal V (Step S**5**).

The calculating unit now determines an additional value α_{1}, for which α_{1}=α_{0}±Δα applies, where Δα is a digital value of a specified angle, and the sign ± depends on the comparison signal (Step **6**). The sign ± is selected so that the absolute value of S decreases with each iteration.

Analogously to the case α_{0}, the calculating unit executes Steps S**2** to S**6** for α_{1}. In this way, iteratively successive α_{i+1}=α_{0}±Δα are determined by successive approximation, the specified value Δα being halved for each iteration. This halving corresponds to shifting a binary number by one place. The number of iterations, in this context, depends on the desired accuracy in the representation of α_{1}, which is limited by the accuracy of the tabular-form representation of the sine function, a binary place of α_{1 }being determined at each iteration. When the lowest binary place has been determined (i=i_{max}), the method stops (Step **7**). The resulting value σ_{1 }for the angular position α_{i }for i=i_{max}, which may deviate at most by an absolute value of α, which is given by Δα for i=i_{max}, is output at signal output **18**. The method is then carried out anew, in order to determine an additional resulting value σ_{i+1 }for the angular position at a later time. Resulting values σ_{i }of the angular position are supplied to an evaluation circuit (that is not shown).

During the execution of an iteration, factor signals F_{1 }and F_{2 }are always multiplied by the same sine signal x_{mod }or cosine signal y_{mod}. In order to achieve this, sine signal x_{mod }or cosine signal y_{mod }is scanned at a slower clock pulse at signal inputs **5**, **8** than factor signals F_{1 }and F_{2 }at signal inputs **6** and **9**. The scanning clock pulse at which sine signal x_{mod }and cosine signal y_{mod }are scanned is set in such a way that the successive approximation is able to be carried out completely during scanning clock pulse duration T. For the following iteration, resulting value σ_{i+1 }states angular position α for a time that is a scanning clock pulse duration T after the time for which σ_{i }was determined.

In one application, the evaluation circuit calculates angular velocity ω=(σ_{i+1}−σ_{i})/T, in each case from two successively output resulting values σ_{i }and σ_{i+1 }of angular position α and from scanning clock pulse duration T at which sine signal x_{mod }and cosine signal y_{mod }are being scanned. In the case in which the angular position sensor is mounted, for instance, on a wheel of a motor vehicle, the evaluation circuit optionally determines a forward speed v of the motor vehicle from v=ω·r, where r is the radius of the motor vehicle wheel. With the aid of the sign of the difference (σ_{i+1}−σ_{i}), the evaluation circuit detects the direction of rotation, and consequently also whether the motor vehicle is traveling backwards or forwards.

In one additional application, the evaluation circuit compares the difference (σ_{i+1}−σ_{i}) which, as the difference of two digital values itself, corresponds to a digital value, (or the absolute value of the difference (σ_{i+1}−σ_{i})) to a digital threshold value. If the difference (σ_{i+1}−σ_{i}), (or the absolute amount of the difference (σ_{i+1}−σ_{i})), on the one hand, is less than the threshold value, this means that the angular velocity ω=0. If the difference (σ_{i+1}−σ_{i}), (or the absolute amount of the difference (σ_{i+1}−σ_{i})), on the other hand, is greater than the threshold value, this means that the angular velocity ω≠0. The threshold value is selected so that it is at least as great as the accuracy with which angle α is determined by successive approximation.

1. A method for determining a resulting value for an angular position, the method comprising:

circuitry performing the following:

determining a first factor and a second factor as a function of an initial angular position value;

forming a first product from a first signal of a first sensor and the first factor and a second product from a second signal of a second sensor and the second factor;

forming a subtraction result by subtracting the second product from the first product;

comparing the subtraction result to a predetermined quantity;

determining an additional first factor and an additional second factor as a function of an additional angular position, the additional angular position selected based on the comparison;

forming an additional first product from the first signal and the additional first factor and an additional second product from the second signal and the additional second factor;

forming an additional subtraction result by subtracting the additional second product from the additional first product;

comparing the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

determining a resulting value for a first angular position based on the comparison of the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity.

circuitry performing the following:

determining a first factor and a second factor as a function of an initial angular position value;

forming a first product from a first signal of a first sensor and the first factor and a second product from a second signal of a second sensor and the second factor;

forming a subtraction result by subtracting the second product from the first product;

comparing the subtraction result to a predetermined quantity;

determining an additional first factor and an additional second factor as a function of an additional angular position, the additional angular position selected based on the comparison;

forming an additional first product from the first signal and the additional first factor and an additional second product from the second signal and the additional second factor;

forming an additional subtraction result by subtracting the additional second product from the additional first product;

comparing the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

determining a resulting value for a first angular position based on the comparison of the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity.

determining a first factor and a second factor as a function of an initial angular position value;

forming a first product from a first signal of a first sensor and the first factor and a second product from a second signal of a second sensor and the second factor;

forming a subtraction result by subtracting the second product from the first product;

comparing the subtraction result to a predetermined quantity;

determining an additional first factor and an additional second factor as a function of an additional angular position, the additional angular position selected based on the comparison;

forming an additional first product from the first signal and the additional first factor and an additional second product from the second signal and the additional second factor;

forming an additional subtraction result by subtracting the additional second product from the additional first product;

comparing the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

determining a resulting value for a first angular position based on the comparison of the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the additional angular position is determined by successive approximation so that the difference between the additional subtraction result and the predetermined quantity for the additional angular position is less than the difference between the subtraction result and the predetermined quantity for the angular position, so as to determine a resulting value for the angular position at a point in time.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein the predetermined quantity is zero.

4. The method of claim 2, wherein the first signal is obtained by subtracting a value from a first sinusoidal measuring signal, and wherein the second signal is obtained by subtracting an additional value from a second sinusoidal measuring signal.

5. The method of claim 2, wherein the factors correspond to elements of a matrix for the transformation of coordinates of a vector in a coordinate system having oblique coordinates to coordinates of the vector in a coordinate system having orthogonal coordinates.

6. The method of claim 2, further comprising:

determining a following first factor and a following second factor as a function of an initial following angular position;

forming a following first product from a following first signal and the following first factor and a following second product from a following second signal and the following second factor;

forming a following subtraction result by subtracting the following second product from the following first product;

comparing the following subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

refining the initial following angular position based on the comparison of the following subtraction result to the quantity to obtain a refined following angular position.

determining a following first factor and a following second factor as a function of an initial following angular position;

forming a following first product from a following first signal and the following first factor and a following second product from a following second signal and the following second factor;

forming a following subtraction result by subtracting the following second product from the following first product;

comparing the following subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

refining the initial following angular position based on the comparison of the following subtraction result to the quantity to obtain a refined following angular position.

7. The method of claim 6, further comprising:

determining another following first factor and another following second factor as a function of the refined following angular position;

forming another following first product from the following first signal and the another following first factor, and another following second product from the following second signal and the another following second factor;

forming another following subtraction result by subtracting the another following second product from the another following first product;

comparing the another following subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

determining a resulting value for the following angular position based on the comparison of the another following subtraction result to the predetermined quantity.

determining another following first factor and another following second factor as a function of the refined following angular position;

forming another following first product from the following first signal and the another following first factor, and another following second product from the following second signal and the another following second factor;

forming another following subtraction result by subtracting the another following second product from the another following first product;

comparing the another following subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

determining a resulting value for the following angular position based on the comparison of the another following subtraction result to the predetermined quantity.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein:

the refined following angular position is determined by successive approximation so that the difference between the another following subtraction result and the predetermined quantity for the refined following angular position is less than the difference between the following subtraction result and the following quantity for the following angular position; and

the following angular position corresponds to a point in time following a first point in time to which the first angular position corresponds.

the refined following angular position is determined by successive approximation so that the difference between the another following subtraction result and the predetermined quantity for the refined following angular position is less than the difference between the following subtraction result and the following quantity for the following angular position; and

the following angular position corresponds to a point in time following a first point in time to which the first angular position corresponds.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein an angular velocity is determined based on the resulting value for the first angular position and the resulting value for the following angular position and a difference between the first point in time and the following point in time.

10. The method of claim 8, wherein a difference between the resulting value for the following angular position and the resulting value for the first angular position is compared to a threshold value, so as to determine whether the angular velocity is zero.

11. A device for determining a resulting value for an angular position, the device comprising:

a factor determination device to determine a first factor and a second factor as a function of an initial angular position value;

a product-forming device to form a first product from a first signal and the first factor, and a second product from the second signal and the second factor;

a subtraction device for forming a subtraction result by subtracting the second product from the first product;

a comparison device to compare the subtraction result to a predetermined quantity; and

a refinement device to refine the initial angular position based on a result of the comparison to obtain an additional angular position;

wherein:

the factor determination device determines an additional first factor and an additional second factor as a function of the additional angular position;

the product-forming device forms an additional first product from the first signal and the additional first factor and additional second product from the second signal and the additional second factor;

the subtraction device forms an additional subtraction result by subtracting the additional second product from the additional first product;

the comparison device compares the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

the refinements device determines a resulting value for a first angular position based on the comparison of the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity.

a factor determination device to determine a first factor and a second factor as a function of an initial angular position value;

a product-forming device to form a first product from a first signal and the first factor, and a second product from the second signal and the second factor;

a subtraction device for forming a subtraction result by subtracting the second product from the first product;

a comparison device to compare the subtraction result to a predetermined quantity; and

a refinement device to refine the initial angular position based on a result of the comparison to obtain an additional angular position;

wherein:

the factor determination device determines an additional first factor and an additional second factor as a function of the additional angular position;

the product-forming device forms an additional first product from the first signal and the additional first factor and additional second product from the second signal and the additional second factor;

the subtraction device forms an additional subtraction result by subtracting the additional second product from the additional first product;

the comparison device compares the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

the refinements device determines a resulting value for a first angular position based on the comparison of the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity.

the factor determination device determines an additional first factor and an additional second factor as a function of the additional angular position;

the product-forming device forms an additional first product from the first signal and the additional first factor and additional second product from the second signal and the additional second factor;

the subtraction device forms an additional subtraction result by subtracting the additional second product from the additional first product;

the comparison device compares the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity; and

the refinements device determines a resulting value for a first angular position based on the comparison of the additional subtraction result to the predetermined quantity.

12. A method for determining a refined value of an angular position, the method comprising:

obtaining a first signal and a second signal using a sensor system; and

iteratively performing the following process by circuitry:

determine a first factor and a second factor as a function of a value of the angular position;

obtain a first product of the first signal and the first factor;

obtain a second product of the second signal and the second factor;

obtain a difference between the first and second products; and

refine the value of the angular position based on the obtained difference;

wherein the iterative process is performed until the value of the angular position is refined to a predetermined degree of refinement.

obtaining a first signal and a second signal using a sensor system; and

iteratively performing the following process by circuitry:

determine a first factor and a second factor as a function of a value of the angular position;

obtain a first product of the first signal and the first factor;

obtain a second product of the second signal and the second factor;

obtain a difference between the first and second products; and

refine the value of the angular position based on the obtained difference;

wherein the iterative process is performed until the value of the angular position is refined to a predetermined degree of refinement.

determine a first factor and a second factor as a function of a value of the angular position;

obtain a first product of the first signal and the first factor;

obtain a second product of the second signal and the second factor;

obtain a difference between the first and second products; and

refine the value of the angular position based on the obtained difference;

13. The method of claim 12, wherein, in each of the iterations, the value of the angular position is refined by either adding to the value of the angular position or subtracting from the value of the angular position a modification value.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the modification value is halved after each of the iterations.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein, in each respective iteration, the refinement includes selecting whether to add the modification value to, or subtract the modification value from, the value of the angular position, such that an absolute value of the difference that would be obtained if a subsequent iteration would be performed would be less than an absolute value of the difference obtained in the respective iteration.

16. The method of claim 13, wherein, for each of the iterations:

the iteration further includes comparing the difference to a predetermined quantity; and

the refinement includes determining whether to add the modification value to the value of the angular position or to subtract the modification value from the value of the angular position based on the comparison.

the iteration further includes comparing the difference to a predetermined quantity; and

the refinement includes determining whether to add the modification value to the value of the angular position or to subtract the modification value from the value of the angular position based on the comparison.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein, in each iteration:

the respective difference is obtained by subtracting the second product from the first product;

the respective comparison indicates whether the respective obtained difference is positive or negative.

the respective difference is obtained by subtracting the second product from the first product;

the respective comparison indicates whether the respective obtained difference is positive or negative.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the predetermined quantity is zero.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein for iteration other than a first iteration, an absolute value of the difference that is obtained for the respective iteration is less than an absolute value of the difference obtained in the iteration immediately preceding the respective iteration.

20. The method of claim 12, wherein, for each of the iterations:

the iteration further includes comparing the difference to a predetermined quantity; and

the refinement of the value is in accordance with the comparison.

the iteration further includes comparing the difference to a predetermined quantity; and

the refinement of the value is in accordance with the comparison.

21. The method of claim 12, wherein the sensor system includes a first sensor via which the first signal is obtained and a second sensor via which the second signal is obtained.

22. The method of claim 21, wherein each of the first and second sensors includes a coil mounted on a rotatable mechanical element, and the sensor system further includes a magnet mounted on a stationary mechanical element.