General features of echinoderm skeleton formation

  title={General features of echinoderm skeleton formation},
  author={Alexander I. Kokorin and Georgy V. Mirantsev and Sergey V. Rozhnov},
  journal={Paleontological Journal},
Available data on the formation of echinoderm skeleton are reviewed based on the literature. The development and structural features of the skeleton and morphological, histological, and molecular data on the skeleton formation in different echinoderm groups are described. Recent data on the study of gene regulatory networks and their effect on biomineraization and skeleton formation are also included. The skeletogenic mechanisms are in general highly conservative within echinoderms at the… 

Exploring the macrostructural anatomy of dendrochirotid sea cucumber’s (Echinodermata) calcareous rings under micro‐computed tomography and its bearing on phylogeny

The first broad comparative study of Dendrochirotida calcareous rings using micro‐computed tomography (μCT) is provided, supporting the idea that the simple, cucumariid ring is ancestral to the mosaic‐like phyllophorid ring; however, it did not support the monophyly of the cucuariids.

Biomaterials and Bioactive Natural Products from Marine Invertebrates: From Basic Research to Innovative Applications

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Molecular aspects of biomineralization of the echinoderm endoskeleton.

  • P. GilbertF. Wilt
  • Materials Science
    Progress in molecular and subcellular biology
  • 2011
It is speculated that: (1) the ACC precursor is a general strategy employed in biomineralization in echinoderms, (2) the numerous occluded proteins play a role in post-secretion formation of the matureBiomineralized structure, and (3) proteins with "multi-valent" intrinsically disordered domains are important for formation of occluding matrix structures, and regulation of crucial matrix-mineral interactions.

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The ultrastructure and cytochemistry of skeleton formation sites prior to mineralization are described for the first time in echinoderms and question the current theories which suggest that the echinoderm organic matrix is soluble at the onset of mineralization and adsorbs on the forming crystal.

Ultrastructural investigation of matrix-mediated biomineralization in echinoids (Echinodermata, Echinoida)

The proposed hypothesis applies to the formation of larval skeletons, echinoderm ossicles and echinoid teeth, which suggests that cilia are primitive features of echinmoderm cells.

Proteins and saccharides of the sea urchin organic matrix of mineralization: characterization and localization in the spine skeleton.

The results suggest that the biological control exerted on the skeletal properties can be partly modulated by local differences in the organic matrix composition.

Paleogenomics of Echinoderms

Key genes for one of these characters, the biomineralized tissue stereom, can be identified in the S. purpuratus genome and are likely to be the same genes involved with stereom formation in the earliest echinoderms some 520 million years ago.

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Significant new insights have emerged from the analysis of a gene regulatory network (GRN) that underlies the development of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin embryo that point to mechanisms associated with the evolution of a new cell lineage.

Transfer of a large gene regulatory apparatus to a new developmental address in echinoid evolution

It is shown, by comparison with adult skeletogenesis in the sea star, that the regulatory apparatus responsible for driving the skeletogenic differentiation gene batteries is an ancient pleisiomorphic aspect of the echinoderm-specific regulatory heritage.

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Tubercles and spines of 33 species of extant irregular echinoids were studied to provide data for interpreting tubercle structure and arrangement in fossil echinoids. Tubercle morphology is analysed


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