General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae)

@article{Camacho2015GeneralBA,
  title={General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae)},
  author={Ernesto Robayo Camacho and Juang-Horng Chong},
  journal={Journal of Integrated Pest Management},
  year={2015},
  volume={6}
}
We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e.g… Expand

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