Hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency of blood clotting factor IX (FIX). Previous studies have shown that the delivery of a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing canine FIX (cFIX) resulted in a complete correction of hemophilia B in FIX-deficient dogs, but that cFIX expression decreased to only about 1-2% of normal levels 3 weeks after treatment. In the present study, therapeutic levels of cFIX expression capable of producing a partial correction of hemophilia B were maintained for at least 6 months after the coadministration of the cFIX-expressing adenovirus and the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA). These findings support a recent report (Yang et al., 1994) that host T-cell-mediated immunity against virally transduced cells is a major contributing factor to the transient nature of adenovirus-mediated gene expression in immunocompetent animals. Although a second administration of the cFIX-expressing adenovirus 6 months after the first infusion had only a minimal effect on plasma FIX levels in a dog that had been continuously treated with CsA, the prolonged expression of the transgene indicates that immunosuppression may be applicable in attaining long-term treatment of clinically relevant disorders.