Meningitis is an inflammatory disease caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses with various clinical symptoms. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels have been shown to be increased in blood or cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis, but the association of IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms or gene expression with meningitis has not been evaluated. IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms A-592C, T-819C, and A-1082G in 61 patients with meningitis and 64 healthy controls were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. mRNA from blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples was extracted, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for IL-10 gene expression. No statistically significant differences were found in the allele and genotypic frequencies between patients and control subjects. Expression of IL-10 in meningitis at mRNA levels was detected in the infiltrating leukocytes. IL-10 gene expression in blood from patients was significantly higher than the control group. Our results suggest that there was no association between promoter polymorphisms of IL-10 and meningitis, but a significant increase of IL-10 gene expression was present in patients with meningitis.