Podostemaceae is a family of aquatic angiosperms growing submerged on rocks in fast-flowing water and called moss-like or alga-like riverweeds. It evolved remarkable innovations to adapt to such an extreme environment, one of which is reduced shoots borne on roots adhering to rock surface. Recent observations revealed that the basal subfamily Tristichoideae, like most other angiosperms, has typical shoot apical meristems (SAMs). In species of the subfamily Podostemoideae, however, shoot apical meristems (SAMs) are not formed during development and new leaves arise from the meristematic basal region of preexisting leaves. The genetic basis of this shoot organogenesis process, e.g., the expression patterns of genes homologous to transcription factors regulating shoot development, is essential to better understand the evolution of Podostemaceae. A gene expression analysis found that the SAM-less Podostemoideae leaf has mixed identity of SAM and leaf, and provided insight into the evolution of the shoot in Podostemaceae.