Gene Transfer from Bacteria and Archaea Facilitated Evolution of an Extremophilic Eukaryote

  title={Gene Transfer from Bacteria and Archaea Facilitated Evolution of an Extremophilic Eukaryote},
  author={Gerald Sch{\"o}nknecht and Wei-Hua Chen and Chad M. Ternes and G. Barbier and Roshan Prakash Shrestha and Mario Stanke and Andrea Br{\"a}utigam and Brett J. Baker and Jillian F. Banfield and R. Michael Garavito and Kevin M. Carr and Curtis G. Wilkerson and Stefan Andreas Rensing and David Gagneul and Nicholas E Dickenson and Christine Oesterhelt and Martin J. Lercher and Andreas P. M. Weber},
  pages={1207 - 1210}
Hot, Toxic Eukaryote Unusually, the single-celled eukaryote red alga, Galdieria sulphuraria, can thrive in hot, acidic springs. This organism is endowed with extraordinary metabolic talents and can consume a variety of strange carbohydrates, as well as turn on photosynthesis when the food runs out. Schönknecht et al. (p. 1207; see the Perspective by Rocha) discerned from phylogenetic analysis of its genome that during its evolution, G. sulphuraria appears to have commandeered at least 75… 

Comparisons between Complete Genomes of the Eukaryotic Extremophile Galdieria sulphuraria Reveals Complex Nuclear Chromosomal Structures

Comparative analyses of the macro synteny revealed significant structural rearrangement between G. sulphuraria isolates and the genome shows signs of sexual recombination, which reveals a mechanism of intrinsic adaptability in this eukaryotic extremophile, uncovering how G. sulfuraria can thrive in a rapidly changing extreme environment.

With a Little Help from Prokaryotes

Evidence of massive gene transfers from Prokaryotes to a eukaryote, the unicellular red alga Galdieria sulphuraria, is presented on page 1207 of this issue.

Cold Acclimation of the Thermoacidophilic Red Alga Galdieria sulphuraria: Changes in Gene Expression and Involvement of Horizontally Acquired Genes

RNA-sequencing is applied to obtain insights into the acclimation of a thermophilic organism towards temperatures below its growth optimum and to study how horizontally acquired genes contribute to cold acclimations.

Antibacterial gene transfer across the tree of life

It is demonstrated that a bacterial lysozyme family integrated independently in all domains of life across diverse environments, generating the only glycosyl hydrolase 25 muramidases in plants and archaea and comprise the first characterization of an antibacterial gene in archaea.

Gene transfers from diverse bacteria compensate for reductive genome evolution in the chromatophore of Paulinella chromatophora

A dominant role for HGT in compensating for organelle genome reduction is demonstrated and it is suggested that phagotrophy may be a major driver of HGT.

Extreme Features of the Galdieria sulphuraria Organellar Genomes: A Consequence of Polyextremophily?

It is suggested that these unique genomic modifications result not only from the harsh conditions in which Galdieria lives but also from its unusual capability to grow heterotrophically, endolithically, and in the dark.

Metabolic Evolution in Galdieria Sulphuraria

Examination of the metabolic pathways encoded by the genome of G. sulphuraria revealed several pathways that are uncharacteristic for plants and algae, even red algae, and suggests a ‘metabolic patchwork’ of genes resulting from multiple evolutionary processes.

Frequent, independent transfers of a catabolic gene from bacteria to contrasted filamentous eukaryotes

The results show that effective inter-domain transfers and subsequent adaptation of a prokaryotic gene in eukaryotic cells can happen at an unprecedented magnitude.

Analysis of horizontal genetic transfer in red algae in the post-genomics age

The impacts of this infusion of red algal genome data on addressing questions regarding the complex nature of algal evolution are explored and the need for scalable phylogenomic approaches to handle the forthcoming deluge of sequence information is highlighted.



EST-analysis of the thermo-acidophilic red microalga Galdieriasulphuraria reveals potential for lipid A biosynthesis and unveils the pathway of carbon export from rhodoplasts

The gene sequences of this living fossil reveal much about the evolution of modern eukaryotes, and the alga tolerates high concentrations of toxic metal ions such as cadmium, mercury, aluminum, and nickel, suggesting potential application in bioremediation.

Genome analysis of the smallest free-living eukaryote Ostreococcus tauri unveils many unique features.

The complete genome sequence of an ancient member of this lineage, the unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri, is unveiled, making O. tauri an ideal model system for research on eukaryotic genome evolution, including chromosome specialization and green lineage ancestry.

The tiny eukaryote Ostreococcus provides genomic insights into the paradox of plankton speciation

It is speculated that this latter process may be involved in altering the cell-surface characteristics of each species, and selenoenzymes, novel fusion proteins, and loss of some major protein families including ones associated with chromatin are likely important adaptations for achieving a small cell size.

Concerted gene recruitment in early plant evolution

The data suggest that, although ancient horizontal gene transfer events did occur in eukaryotic evolution, the number of acquired genes does not predict the role of horizontal geneTransfer in the adaptation of the recipient organism, and multiple independently acquired genes are able to generate and optimize key evolutionary novelties in major eukARYotic groups.

Genome sequence of the ultrasmall unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D

The results indicate that the C. merolae genome provides a model system with a simple gene composition for studying the origin, evolution and fundamental mechanisms of eukaryotic cells.

The Genome of the Diatom Thalassiosira Pseudonana: Ecology, Evolution, and Metabolism

It is identified novel genes for silicic acid transport and formation of silica-based cell walls, high-affinity iron uptake, biosynthetic enzymes for several types of polyunsaturated fatty acids, use of a range of nitrogenous compounds, and a complete urea cycle, all attributes that allow diatoms to prosper in aquatic environments.

Hidden biodiversity of the extremophilic Cyanidiales red algae

The research revealed an unexpected level of genetic diversity among Cyanidiales that revises current thinking about the phylogeny and biodiversity of this group and predicts that future environmental PCR studies will significantly augment known biodiversity that is discovered and demonstrate the Cyanidials to be a species‐rich branch of red algal evolution.

The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes

Analysis of molecular divergence compared with yeasts and metazoans reveals rapid rates of gene diversification in diatoms, and documents the presence of hundreds of genes from bacteria, likely to provide novel possibilities for metabolite management and for perception of environmental signals.

The genome of the thermoacidophilic red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria encodes a small family of secreted class III peroxidases that might be involved in cell wall modification

Comparative genomics between endolithically growing G. sulphuraria and a close relative, the obligatory aquatic, cell wall-less Cyanidioschyzon merolae, revealed that class III peroxidases only occur in the terrestrial microalga, thus supporting the key function of these enzymes in the process of land colonization.