Gene Drive Dynamics in Natural Populations: The Importance of Density Dependence, Space, and Sex.

@article{Dhole2020GeneDD,
  title={Gene Drive Dynamics in Natural Populations: The Importance of Density Dependence, Space, and Sex.},
  author={Sumit Dhole and Alun L. Lloyd and Fred Gould},
  journal={Annual review of ecology, evolution, and systematics},
  year={2020},
  volume={51 1},
  pages={
          505-531
        }
}
The spread of synthetic gene drives is often discussed in the context of panmictic populations connected by gene flow and described with simple deterministic models. Under such assumptions, an entire species could be altered by releasing a single individual carrying an invasive gene drive, such as a standard homing drive. While this remains a theoretical possibility, gene drive spread in natural populations is more complex and merits a more realistic assessment. The fate of any gene drive… 

Figures from this paper

Modeling CRISPR gene drives for suppression of invasive rodents
TLDR
A high-fidelity model of an island population of invasive rodents that includes three types of suppression gene drive systems and a meta-model that utilizes supervised machine learning to approximate the outcome space of the underlying model with a high degree of accuracy is developed.
Modelling the suppression of a malaria vector using a CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive to reduce female fertility
TLDR
Simulation modelling indicates that considerable suppression of vector populations can be achieved within a few years of using a female sterility gene drive, though the impact is likely to be heterogeneous in space and time.
2-Locus Cleave and Rescue selfish elements harness a recombination rate-dependent generational clock for self limiting gene drive
TLDR
It is shown that when ClvR is implemented in a 2-locus format, with key elements – Rescue (and Cargo), and Cas9 and/or gRNAs – located at different genomic positions, spread of the Rescue is self-limiting.
Design and analysis of CRISPR‐based underdominance toxin‐antidote gene drives
TLDR
The results suggest that CRISPR TA underdominance drive systems could allow for the design of flexible and potentially confinable gene drive strategies, and provide a wide range of invasion threshold frequencies and options for both population modification and suppression.
Adequacy and sufficiency evaluation of existing EFSA guidelines for the molecular characterisation, environmental risk assessment and post‐market environmental monitoring of genetically modified insects containing engineered gene drives
TLDR
In this Scientific Opinion, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) concludes that EFSA's guidelines are adequate, but insufficient for the molecular characterisation, environmental risk assessment and post‐market environmental monitoring of GDMIs.
Gene Drive-Modified Organisms: Developing Practical Risk Assessment Guidance.
TLDR
Advice is offered based on the experience drafting guidance for deliberate environmental releases of gene drive-modified organisms for risk assessors, risk managers, developers, potential applicants, and other stakeholders.
A common gene drive language eases regulatory process and eco-evolutionary extensions
TLDR
This work shows that different drive construct (replacement) mechanisms can be condensed and evaluated on an equal footing even where they incorporate multiple replacement drives approaches and provides an intuitive and objective way for risk assessment, informing policies, and enhancing public engagement with proposed and future gene drive approaches.
A homing suppression gene drive with multiplexed gRNAs maintains high drive conversion efficiency and avoids functional resistance alleles
TLDR
A homing suppression drive in Drosophila melanogaster is constructed that utilized multiplexed gRNAs to inhibit the formation of functional resistance alleles in its female fertility target gene and reaches a moderate equilibrium frequency in cage populations without apparent formation of resistance allele.
Demographic feedbacks can hamper the spatial spread of a gene drive
TLDR
The results indicate that taking into account the interplay between population dynamics and population genetics might actually be crucial, as it can effectively reverse the direction of the invasion and lead to failure.
Demographic feedbacks can hamper the spatial spread of a gene drive.
TLDR
The results indicate that taking into account the interplay between population dynamics and population genetics might actually be crucial, as it can effectively reverse the direction of the invasion and lead to failure.
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 171 REFERENCES
Suppression gene drive in continuous space can result in unstable persistence of both drive and wild-type alleles
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the population dynamics of suppression gene drives are determined by a complex interplay of genetic and ecological factors, highlighting the need for realistic spatial modeling to predict the outcome of drive releases in natural populations.
Pest demography critically determines the viability of synthetic gene drives for population control.
TLDR
It is shown that mass-action reproduction results in overly optimistic eradication outcomes when compared to the more realistic assumption of polygynous breeding, and the demography of a population targeted for eradication is critical before the viability of gene-drive suppression can be adequately assessed.
Invasion and migration of spatially self‐limiting gene drives: A comparative analysis
TLDR
A population genetics model is used to compare the expected characteristics of three spatially self‐limiting gene drive systems and finds large differences in the minimum release size required for successfully driving a payload into a population.
Gene drive through a landscape: Reaction-diffusion models of population suppression and elimination by a sex ratio distorter.
TLDR
A series of reaction-diffusion models of a driving-Y chromosome in 1-D and radially-symmetric 2-D unbounded domains are developed, showing how wave speed depends on the strength of drive and the diffusion rate of Y-drive males, and is independent of the population dynamic consequences.
Gene Drives: Dynamics and Regulatory Matters-A Report from the Workshop "Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Control of Gene Drives," April 4-5, 2019, Vienna.
  • B. Giese, J. Frieß, +6 authors C. Boëte
  • Biology, Medicine
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2019
TLDR
Results of the recent workshop on the “Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Control of Gene Drives” hosted by the Institute of Safety/Security and Risk Sciences in Vienna aimed at gaining some insight into the potential population dynamic behavior of GDs and appropriate measures of control.
Tethered homing gene drives: a new design for spatially restricted population replacement and suppression
TLDR
A new gene drive system, Tethered Homing (TH), is presented, with improved capacity for localized population alteration, especially for population suppression, and the ability to gradually adjust the genetic load in a population after the initial alteration, with minimal additional release effort.
Ecological effects on underdominance threshold drives for vector control.
TLDR
Ecological and epidemiological dynamics are coupled to a model of mosquito genetics to investigate theoretically the impact of different types of underdominance gene drive on disease prevalence and it is found that female-specific lethality averts a higher percentage of disease cases over a control period than does bi-sex lethality.
Gene-drive into insect populations with age and spatial structure: a theoretical assessment
TLDR
This study demonstrates that to determine the best method of spatial release, and the total number of engineered insects that must be released, it is important to take into account the age and sex of the released insects and spatial structure of the population.
Modeling the Dynamics of a Non-Limited and a Self-Limited Gene Drive System in Structured Aedes aegypti Populations
TLDR
This study provides guidelines for operational approaches to population replacement genetic strategies, as well as illustrates the use of detailed spatial models to assist in safe and efficient implementation of such novel genetic strategies.
Population management using gene drive: molecular design, models of spread dynamics and assessment of ecological risks
TLDR
This work examines the challenges posed by the evolution of resistance to gene drives and review the various molecular and environmental risks associated with gene drives (e.g. propagation to non target populations or species and unintended detrimental ecosystem impacts).
...
1
2
3
4
5
...