Gender role conflict, instrumentality, expressiveness, and well-being in adult men

  title={Gender role conflict, instrumentality, expressiveness, and well-being in adult men},
  author={Mark J. Sharpe and Puncky Paul Heppner and Wayne A. Dixon},
  journal={Sex Roles},
This study examined gender roles and gender role conflict in relation to a broad range of indices of psychological well-being in men. Eighty-eight community adult primarily white men (median age = 50) completed ten inventories assessing masculine role constructs and measures of psychological well-being. Whereas instrumentality continued to be the strongest correlate of traditional measures of well-being, the canonical analysis confirmed the Sharpe and Heppner 1991 study indicating that at least… 
Keeping Control: Relations Between Men's Gender Role Conflict, Spirituality and Psychological Well Being
Recent decades have seen an increase in scrutiny of masculinity and what it means to be a man in society. Researchers as well as popular culture have increased their focus on gender roles and how
Masculine Gender Role Conflict and Psychological Well- Being: A Comparative Study of Heterosexual and Gay Men
Masculine gender role conflict (MGRC) occurs when externally-imposed male gender role expectations have a negative impact on and consequences for men. The purpose of this study was to examine how men
Age and Gender Role Conflict: A Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Men
A total of 221 educated middle-class Australian males across three age groups (18–24, 36–45, and 60-plus years), responded to O'Neil et al.'s Gender Role Conflict Scales and a set of measures for
The Relationship Among Normative Male Alexithymia, Gender Role Conflict, Men's Non-romantic Relationships With Other Men, and Psychological Well-being
Normative Male Alexithymia (NMA; Levant 1992) and Gender Role Conflict (GRC; O’Neil, 2008) have emerged in the literature as empirically supported masculinity-based constructs that could be possible
The Relationship Among Gender Role Conflict, Normative Male Alexithymia, Men’s Friendship Discords With Other Men, and Psychological Well-Being
This study examined the triadic relationship of gender role conflict (GRC), normative male alexithymia (NMA), and men’s friendships qualities with other men as well as the impact of this triadic
Interrole Conflict as a Function of Life Stage, Gender, and Gender-Related Personality Attributes
The purpose of the present study was to examine the amount and type of interrole conflict experienced by women and men at different life stages. A battery of questionnaires, including a demographic
Self-esteem as a Mediator Between Instrumentality, Gender Role Conflict and Depression in Male Korean High School Students
This study examined the effects of self-esteem as a mediator of the relationship between instrumentality, gender role conflict and depression in 464 Korean high school boys using structural equation
Masculine gender roles and counseling-related variables : Links with and mediation by personality
The authors examined the overlap of masculine gender-role conflict and stress with personality, as organized in the 5-factor model (FFM), in a sample of 300 college men. Using a subset (n = 173) of
Three dimensions of the male gender role as correlates of alcohol and cannabis involvement in young Australian men.
This study examined 3 aspects of the male gender role and their relationship to alcohol and cannabis involvement in young adult Australian men (N = 160) aged between 18 and 25 years. Higher scores on
Women's Perceptions of Male Partners' Gender Role Conflict as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Satisfaction.
This study evaluated the relationship between women’s perceptions of men’s gender role conflict and women’s relationship satisfaction and well-being. One hundred seventy-five women reported


Predictors of adult men's gender-role conflict : race, class, unemployment, age, instrumentality-expressiveness, and personal strain
Gender-role conflict exists when socialized gender roles result in personal restriction, devaluation, or violation of others or self. This research assesses the ways in which 13 demographic,
Patterns of Gender Role Conflict and Strain: Sexism and Fear of Femininity in Men's Lives
This article describes men's gender role conflict and strain that emanate from rigid gender socialization. The author proposes 10 assumptions about how gender role socialization and sexism can be
Sex-role orientation and psychological adjustment: Implications for the masculinity model
The present study tested the theory that masculine persons are as favorably adjusted psychologically as androgynous persons. Grouped on the basis of Bem Sex Role Inventory scores, androgynous,
Sex-role orientation and psychological well-being: Two meta-analyses
Research on the relationship between sex-role orientation and psychological well-being has been guided by one of three models. The traditional congruence model holds that psychological well-being
Gender-role conflict scale: College men's fear of femininity
Gender-role conflict exists when gender roles have negative consequences for people. This research reports initial validity and reliability data on measures of gender-role conflict for men. Two
Attitudes toward the male role and their correlates
This study investigated relationships between college men's attitudes toward the male role and five theoretical concomitants of the role. It was expected that males endorsing traditional male-role
Gender Role Conflict and Depression in College Men: Evidence for Compounded Risk
This study investigated the relationships between attitudes toward the male role, gender role conflict factors, and depression in 401 college men. Results indicated that all four of the gender role
Men and masculinities: Scales for masculinity ideology and masculinity-related constructs
This review evaluates 11 masculinity ideology measures that examine attitudes toward men and masculinities and 6 instruments for other masculinity-related constructs. Four conclusions regarding the
The measurement of psychological androgyny.
  • S. Bem
  • Psychology
    Journal of consulting and clinical psychology
  • 1974
A new sex-role inventory is described that treats masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics.
Life satisfaction and sex-role concept
The purpose of the present survey study was to investigate the relationship between life satisfaction and sex-role concept. Two hundred and seventeen respondents completed a two-part questionnaire,