Gender disparities in preterm neonatal outcomes

@article{ODriscoll2018GenderDI,
  title={Gender disparities in preterm neonatal outcomes},
  author={David N. O’Driscoll and Matthew McGovern and Catherine M. Greene and Eleanor J. Molloy},
  journal={Acta Paediatrica},
  year={2018},
  volume={107}
}
From birth to old age, males generally have poorer disease outcomes compared to females. Preterm infants display a marked gender disparity in disease outcomes, and the underlying mechanisms are not well delineated. Our aim was to review the literature on clinical outcomes between preterm infants of different genders and discuss the potential mechanisms underlying the differences observed. 
Sex‐specific actions of drugs in preterm infants
TLDR
Differences in outcome for preterm girls and boys have been attributed to biological sex, rather than sociocultural gender, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown.
Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm twins by sex pairing: an international cohort study
TLDR
Sex-related disparities in outcomes exist in extremely preterm twins, with girls having lower risks than boys and opposite-sex pairs having lower risk than same-sex Pair, and clinicians in assessing risk in this large segment ofextremely preterm infants.
Do preterm girls need different nutrition to preterm boys? Sex-specific nutrition for the preterm infant
TLDR
The evidence that sex is an important moderator of the outcomes of preterm nutrition intervention is examined, and what further knowledge is required before providing nutrition intervention for infants born preterm based on their sex is described.
Effect of gender on growth-restricted fetuses born preterm
TLDR
The data do not support an advantage of either gender in preterm birth of infants who are most likely growth restricted, and low Apgar scores were more common in pre term females born at 33–37 weeks and vice versa in births over 37 weeks.
Preeclampsia was a risk factor for pulmonary interstitial emphysema in preterm infants born ≤32 weeks of gestational age
This study determined the prenatal and postnatal risk factors for pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) in preterm infants born at up to 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) and their contribution to
Sex Differences in Patent Ductus Arteriosus Incidence and Response to Pharmacological Treatment in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
TLDR
Subgroup analysis and meta-regression showed that the absence of sex differences was maintained over the years and in different geographic settings, and both the incidence of Pda in preterm infants and the response rate to pharmacological treatment of PDA are not different between preterm boys and girls.
Preterm Neonatal Mortality and Its Determinants at a Tertiary Hospital in Western Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study
TLDR
Various maternal and neonatal risk factors were identified, indicating a need for stakeholders to enhance efforts towards prevention of preterm-associated complications and optimize facility-based continuum of care.
Sex Differences in Mortality and Morbidity of Infants Born at Less Than 30 Weeks’ Gestation
TLDR
Compared with girls, male infants born at <30 weeks’ gestation experienced faster declines in mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, and chronic lung disease over an 11-year period.
Sex differences in postnatal weight gain trajectories of extremely preterm newborns
TLDR
Sex disparity exists in postnatal weight gain trajectories of EPNs after reaching the term-equivalent age, and males had higher predicted weight trajectories than females, while females showed faster increases afterward.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 63 REFERENCES
Gender Differences in Respiratory Morbidity and Mortality of Preterm Neonates
TLDR
This contemporary review examines gender differences in preterm infant respiratory morbidity and mortality specifically appraising differences in the very low birth weight (VLBW) population as well as the late preterm (LPT) population.
Gender differences in outcomes of low birth weight and preterm neonates: the male disadvantage.
TLDR
Results of the present study indicate that preterm or low birth weight male neonates have higher likelihood of mortality compared with their female counterparts in the Indian scenario.
Immune function? A missing link in the gender disparity in preterm neonatal outcomes
TLDR
The role of immune function in the manifestation of sex-specific disease manifestations and outcomes in preterm neonates is a critical prognostic variable and mechanistic elucidation will yield valuable translational and clinical information of disease processes in pre term neonates which may be harnessed for modulation.
Gender differences in neurodevelopmental outcomes among extremely preterm, extremely‐low‐birthweight infants
TLDR
Boys were more likely than girls to have adverse outcomes and major risk factors were also more common in boys, and independent multivariate associations of risk factors with outcome differed by gender, but not consistently in favor of girls.
Mortality and Adverse Neurologic Outcomes Are Greater in Preterm Male Infants
TLDR
In the modern era of neonatal management, male infants still have higher mortality and poorer long-term neurologic outcome and gender differences for mortality and long- term neurologic outcomes appear to lose significance at 27 weeks gestation.
Male/female differences in indomethacin effects in preterm infants.
Impact of sex on perinatal mortality and morbidity in twins
TLDR
Male-male twins have higher respiratory morbidity and neonatal mortality than female-female twins, and in unliked-sexed twin pairs, the males seem to be protected by having a female co-twin.
Sex Differences and Hormonal Effects in a Model of Preterm Infant Brain Injury
TLDR
The role of gender and early hormonal environment in addressed in this novel model of prenatal brain damage, with males more sensitive to insult than females.
Do premature female infants really do better than their male counterparts?
TLDR
Female infants born ≤32 weeks GA have a decreased rate of survival and an increased rate of respiratory morbidity in spite of higher birth weight distributions and sex did not play a role in other processes of care.
...
...